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Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

430 Index

430 Index fencing, 260 financing, 161–165, 255, 404 domestic public sources, 163 international systems of payments, 164 payment for goods and services, 164 private for-profit sources, 164 private not-for-profit sources, 163–164 sustainable, 420 Finland boreal forest restoration, 327–328 deadwood requirements, 199 prescribed burning, 186–187, 327–328 protected area interventions, 210 southern region restoration policy, 204–205 species’ transfers, 200–201 fire as degradation factor, 334 historical account, 331 impacts, 332–333 in the landscape, 331–332 as natural disturbance, 333–334 research needs, 425 restoration after, 333–338 potential adverse impacts, 336 tools, 336–337 as tool, 334 fire-dependent specialist species, 199, 201 fire management, 141, 201, 337, 396 fire risk, 82 management strategies, 269–270 firebreaks, 269–273 widths, 270, 271 floodplain forests characteristics, 306–307 restoration, 306–312 assessment, 310 bedload transport, 307–308 examples of measures, 308–309 forest structure, 308 future needs, 311–312 hydrological connections, 307 integrated river basin management, 310–311 monitoring, 310 scales, 307 focal species, 45 focus groups, 61 fodder harvest, 223 FONAFIFO, 168 Fontainebleau Forest, 204, 210, 340–341 forcefield analyses, 132 forest authenticity, 18 assessment of levels, 187, 188 Forest Biodiversity Indicators Project, 148 forest certification, 389 NTFPs and, 220 forest dependence degree of, 85 poverty and, 22, 26 forest dynamics plots, 111 forest fires, mimicking see fire management forest fragments, 113, 205, 301 forest landscape restoration (FLR), 8 active vs. passive, 95 after fire see fire, restoration after background, 3–4 balancing needs, 6, 404 broader approach, 4–6 capacity, 97 challenges based on experience to date, 94–98 commercial plantations in, 379–382 communications about see communications definition, 5, 10–11 end point, 96 framework, 417–422 funding see financing goals, 94–95, 101–105, 109, 419 growing recognition of need, 401–402 guidelines, 12 integration with protection and management, 402 key elements, 11 lessons learnt, 415–417 planning see restoration planning practical interventions see tactical interventions as a process, 402 process of, 53 reasons for landscape scale, 6, 52 as resilience/adaptation strategy, 35–36 resources, 96 social impact, guiding questions, 26–27 suite of responses required, 402–403 support needed, 404 trade-offs in see trade-offs valuation of goods and services, 95–96, 139–140, 170 forest loss and degradation addressing underlying causes, 418 impact assessment, 418 impact on biodiversity, 17–21 impact on human well-being, 22–29 examples, 25, 27–28 forest ownership communal, 86–87 definitions, 84–85 and forest restoration, 84–92 future needs, 91–92 tools to address issues, 90–91 and goods and services rights, 86 stability, 86 forest plantations, definition, 379, 384 forest quality assessment, 20, 187, 188 restoration, 185–189 Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), 164 certification, 220–221 forestry officers, training, 421 Forests for Life Programme, 422 Forests of the Lower Mekong ecoregion, Indochina, 44 “founder effect”, 244 fragmentation, 35, 292 see also connectivity “framework species” approach, 245, 252–253, 289 France badlands restoration, 152–153, 265 deadwood, 204 floodplain forest restoration, 309 forest management, 177–178 Japanese knotweed invasion, 210

lack of ecological monitoring, 69 restoration after storm, 341–342 storm disturbance data, 340–341 frontier forest analysis, 20 definition, 112 fuel management, 271 vs. fire suppression, 272 fuelwood, 223 forest restoration for, 223–226 plantation eras, 224–226 Fundación Vida Silvestre Argentina (FVSA), 75, 237 G gap analysis, 57, 113 gap planting, 364 gene flow, 47 genetic diversity, maintenance, 36 genetic selection, 263, 265–266 geographic information system (GIS) tools, 119 in conservation/restoration planning, 49, 325, 374 in fire risk analysis, 271 in suitability modelling, 117–118 in threat assessment, 76–77 Ghana, collaborative forest management, 27 Gifts to the Earth tool, 139 Glen Affric, Scotland, UK, 323–324 Global 200 ecoregions, 42, 51, 422 global change issues, and invasive alien species, 349 Global Environmental Facility (GEF), 164 Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP), 347 Global Partnership on Forest Landscape Restoration, 422 global warming, 32, 287 see also climate change goods and services payment for, 164 valuation, 95–96, 139–140, 170 government incentives, 78–81 government policies changing, 138 and erosion control, 355 grazing management, 353–354 green markets, facilitating access to, 29 Greenhouse Emissions Reduction Trading (GERT), 169 GTZ property legislation principles, 91 Sustainable Forest Management Project, 334 Guanacaste National Park, Costa Rica, 210, 259, 287 Guangdong, China, 410–411 Guatemala, montane forest restoration, 299–300 Guinea, forest restoration, 53–54 Gunung Kidal, Indonesia, 410 H habitat loss, 386 modelling, 116 provided by deadwood, 186, 204 reconnection, 46, 54 Hawaii alien grass control, 346–347 native forests, 195, 205 hedgerow intercropping, 275, 277–278 “hidden forest harvest”, 219 high conservation value forests (HCVF), 20, 235 high conservation values (HCVs), 235 Hmong people, and land rights, 88 home gardens, 235 multistorey, 276 homogeneous monocultures, restoration, 201 human well-being definition, 11, 23 forest loss impact, 22–29 examples, 25, 27–28 Hungary, mine site regeneration, 259 hurricanes, 299 hydrological models, 374–375 Index 431 I Iceland, substrate stability, 193, 194 IDRISI, 118, 119 IFOAM, certification, 220–221 impact, definition, 23 India joint forest management, 27 Nilgiri Biosphere, 111 sacred forests, 234 indigenous species see native forests; native species Indonesia cloud forest conservation, 303–305 enrichment planting, 364 forest rehabilitation, 405, 406, 407, 410 plantation development incentives, 79 protection forests, 89–90 pulp plantations, 380, 381 rainforest rehabilitation, 334–335 Indonesian deer, 347 industrial plantations best practice guide, 394–397 era of, 225 inoculation, 264, 289, 294 institutional arrangements, for rehabilitation projects, 407, 410–411 integrated approach, 417 Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs), 403 intergenerational equity, 86 International Erosion Control Association, 355 International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, advice on land tenure issues, 91, 92 International Plant Protection Convention (1951), 347 International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO) planted forest guidelines, 381–382 restoration guidelines, 90, 382, 412 invasive (alien) species (IASs), 345–346 control/removal, 346–349, 387–388

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[en]+[zh]Study on Forest Landscape Restoration - ITTO
Rehabilitation and Restoration Of Degraded Forests (PDF) - IUCN
People Restoring America's Forests: - Society of American Foresters
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Restoring Southwestern Forests – A 21st Century Challenge
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Rehabilitation and Restoration Of Degraded Forests (PDF) - IUCN
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