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Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

432 Index

432 Index invasive (alien) species (IASs) (cont.) by planting native species, 253 future needs, 347–349 methods, 187, 189, 260 research, 140, 348 tools, 347 impact, 195 introduced intentionally, 346, 347 introduced unintentionally, 346 research needs, 425 J Jari plantations, Brazil, 380–381 Jarrah forest, Australia, 372–373 Jordan, forest regeneration, 209 K Kenya improved fallow, 277 montane forest restoration, 299 quarry restoration, 9, 123 water supply protection, 230 keystone species, 195, 198 cultural (CKS), 234 Kinabatangan River, Malaysia, 137, 187, 310 Kings Canyon National Park, USA, 335 KMYLB, 407–408 knowledge, dissemination and exchange, 421 Kyoto protocol, 123, 168–169, 172 L La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, 264–265 Lafarge, quarry rehabilitation, 123–124 land abandonment, 356 forest restoration after, 356–360 active, 358–359 passive, 358 socioeconomic tools, 359 land care, 104 land mapping, 90, 117 land ownership see forest ownership land tenure see tenure land-use scenarios, 67 land value, mapping, 117 landscape(s) multifunctional, 6, 60, 216 promotion, 95 see also forest landscape restoration landscape architecture, 104 landscape beauty, payment for, 167 landslides, 298–299 Latvia, forestry regulations, 122 learning by doing, 105 Lebanon, forest management, 187 liberation thinning, 366 line planting, 364 livelihood(s) analysis, 28–29, 278 definition, 23 needs, in rehabilitation projects, 406–407, 409–410, 412 lobbying, following storms, 340, 343 local participation, in rehabilitation projects, 406, 407–409, 411–412 log landings rehabilitation, 364 logging biodiversity impacts, 362 monocyclic, 362 polycyclic, 362 reduced-impact (RIL), 363 see also overlogged forests Lombok, Indonesia, 303–305 LULUCF, 174 M Madagascar choosing priority landscape, 97 forest restoration, 74–75, 107–108, 288 microenterprise development programmes, 141 plantation projects, 10 seed dispersal problems, 357 Malaysia forest reconnection, 187, 310 log landings rehabilitation, 364 native species silviculture, 293 priority species identification, 98 restoration methods research, 137 Mandena Conservation Zone, Madagascar, 74 mangrove restoration, 32–34, 47–48 mapping examples, 118–119 future needs, 119 in long-term modelling, 118 of opportunities, 117–118 to meet or set targets, 116–117 market pressure, 139 market research, 140, 413 marketing, of forest landscape restoration, 176–177 Mediterranean region forest degradation, 313–314 forest restoration activities, 314–315 after fires, 335–336 examples, 315–318 future needs, 319 programme evaluation, 154 tools, 318–319 land tenure, 314 NTFPs in, 217–218 plantation management, 357–358 reference forests, 111 wildfires, 314 Meket district, Ethiopia, 88 METSO, 205 Mexico active restoration research, 358 natural forest regeneration, 358 pilot forest plan based on NTFPs, 220 Scolel Té project, 173–174 shade-grown coffee, 277 microenterprise development, 141 migration, 47 mine site regeneration, 259 see also open-cast mining reclamation mixed species plantations, 247, 266–267, 389 Model Code of Forest Harvesting Practices, 363 modelling tools, 420 Mombasa, Kenya, disused quarry rehabilitation, 9, 123 monitoring, 150–155, 420–421 in adaptive management context, 145–148 common mistakes, 147 framework for, 152

future needs, 155, 420–421 indicator selection, 151–152 as key to success, 403 long-term, 96, 118 as management tool, 103 of plantations, 397 pressures, 288 tools, 154–155 vital attributes, 153 monoculture plantations, 246, 292–293 monocultures, mosaics of, 246 Morocco, forest restoration, 318 Mount Kenya national park, 299 mountain gorillas, 19 Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, India, 111 multicriteria evaluation (MCE), 62, 115, 117–118 multidisciplinary teams, 420 multifunctionality, 6, 60, 216 promotion, 95 multilateral donors, 139, 163 multipurpose tree, 275 mycorrhizae inoculation, 264, 289, 294 N Nairobi, Kenya, water supply, 230 national level surveys, 19–20 native forests definition, 112 restoration, 186, 190–191, 195 native species endangered, saving, 263 issues related to use, 263–264 planting, 253 silviculture, 293 natural communities representation, 44–45 seral stages, 45 natural regeneration stimulation, 250–255, 367 anthropogenic disturbance control, 251–252 diversity nuclei use, 252 “framework species” method, 252–253 future needs, 254–255 invasive species elimination, 253 limiting factors, 251 tools, 254 vegetation as regeneration facilitators, 253 natural succession see succession, natural naturalness assessment, 210–211 components, 185–186 Neem tree, 235 negotiation alternative to, 129 cultural considerations, 130 need for, 418 phases, 132 principles, 128, 131 process, 130–132 skills, 131 of trade-offs, 61–62, 279 Nepal, community forestry, 27 New Caledonia forest loss, 18 invasive species control, 347 tropical dry forests programme, 68–69, 97–98, 140, 287–288 New York City, water supply, 230 New York State, salvage logging ban, 341 Nicaragua, biodiversity conservation payments, 169 Niger, watershed restoration, 353 nontimber forest products (NTFPs) community-based incomegenerating systems based on, 220 definition, 215 environmental values, 216 and forest certification, 220 impact of loss of, 26 legal frameworks for, 221 in national forestry curricula, 221 as response to poverty, 216–217 restoration guidelines, 219 socioeconomic benefits, 215, 216 valuing in rural development, 219 Novo Paraíso, Brazil, 409–410 nurseries design, 141 seed availability in, 264 O Oaxaca, Mexico, 358 obstructions, above-ground, 354 Index 433 old-growth, definition, 112 open-cast mining reclamation, 9–10, 264, 292, 370–375 conceptual framework, 371 future needs, 375 laws, 375 planning, 371 problems of mine soils, 372 tools, 374–375 opportunity costs, 86, 104 Oregon, USA, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, 110–111 organic matter addition, 195 original forests, definitions, 112 outgrower schemes, 162 overland flow, 350 overlogged forests definition, 361 restoration, 363–367 area protection, 365 future needs, 367 logging practice improvements, 363 planning, 365–366 reasons, 363 silvicultural interventions, 366–367 overseas development assistance (ODA), 162, 163 overstorey removal, 366 ownership, forest see forest ownership P PALNET system, 421 Paluarco river, Ecuador, 162–163 Panama, reforestation in catchments, 230 participatory appraisal, 132 participatory rural appraisal (PRA), 90–91, 278 PASOLAC, 27 payment for environmental services (PES), 162, 166–170, 231 valuation tools, 170 people first era, 225–226 Peru Croton restoration, 218–219 forest rehabilitation, 405, 406, 408–409 pests, 346 control, 396

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[en]+[zh]Study on Forest Landscape Restoration - ITTO
Landscape management /Restoration ecology
People Restoring America's Forests: - Society of American Foresters
Rehabilitation and Restoration Of Degraded Forests (PDF) - IUCN
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Rehabilitation and Restoration Of Degraded Forests (PDF) - IUCN
Landscape restoration
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Th R l f U b F t i The Role of Urban Forests in Biodiversity Restoration
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MaNaGED FOrEsts IN FUtUrE LaNDscaPEs - Biblioteca Digital do IPB
Towards global guidelines for restoring the resilience of forest ...
The threats of invasive plants in forest restoration - total raffinage ...
FOREST LEGACY PROGRAM
Building forest landscapes resilient to global changes in drylands ...
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Assessment, Conservation and Sustainable Use of Forest Biodiversity