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Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

434 Index

434 Index Philippines, forest rehabilitation, 405, 406, 407–408 Plan Vivo system, 174 plant ecology, 266 Plantar project, 172–173 plantation companies, training, 396–397, 421 plantation trees, as nurse plants, 259 plantations best practice guide, 394–397 commercial, in forest landscape restoration, 379–382 even-aged see even-aged plantations locating, 393 managing, 393–397 mixed species, 247, 266–267, 389 monoculture, 246, 292–293 monospecific, 384 research needs, 424 rubber, 379 sustainability elements, 392–393 tree species selection, 262–267 future needs, 267 goals, 263 issues related to native species use, 263–264 tools, 265–267 Poland, Bialowieza forest, 204 policy changes, 402, 403 policy incentives perverse, 78–81 redirection of, 81 policy interventions, 121–125 tools, 124 political environment, supportive, 418–419 pollen analysis, 113 polyacrylamides (PAMs), 355 population viability analysis (PVA), 45–46 Portugal, restoration after fires, 335–336 poverty avoidance/mitigation, 26 degrees of, 24 elimination, 26 and forest dependence, 22, 26 mapping and assessment, 104 NTFPs as response to, 216–217 predator–prey dynamics, 47 pressures, monitoring, 288 Prestige oil spill, 178 primary woodland, definition, 112 prioritisation, 418 tools, future needs, 57 priority landscapes, 42 identification, 67 implementing conservation in, 55 problem trees, 132 process management, 128, 129 PROCYMAF project, 28 property definition, 84–85 rights, problems, 79 types, 85 protect–manage–restore approach, 44, 52–53, 55 stages, 56–57 protected areas categories, 211 restoration in, 208–212 threats, 208 zoning, 211 Puerto Rico restoration via natural succession, 292 substrate stability, 193–194 tree plantations, 259, 386 Q quality, forest see forest quality Quintana Roo, Mexico, pilot forest plan, 220 Quito, Ecuador, water supply, 229 R racks, installation of, 254 Rainforest Alliance, Smartwood Programme, 221 range maps, 117 Rapid Ecological Assessment methodology, 20 rapid rural appraisal (RRA), 90–91, 278 rattan, 218 REACTION programme, 154, 319 reclamation see open-cast mining reclamation reduced-impact logging (RIL), 363 reference forests/landscapes, 55, 103, 109–113, 258 tools, 112–113 reforestation, definition, 10 “regeneration nuclei”, 251 rehabilitation definition, 9 sustainable, 405–413 future needs, 413 institutional arrangements, 407, 410–411 lessons from past projects, 406–407 local participation, 406, 407–409, 411–412 socioeconomic needs, 406–407, 409–410, 412 tools, 411–412 relics, 366 representation, natural community, 44–45 resilience-building, and forest restoration and protection, 33 restoration databases, 155 restoration planning framework, 66–68 future needs, 70 goals and targets, 94–95, 101–105, 109, 419 multiple scales, 419 need for, 65–66 tools, 69–70 restoration trajectories identification, 68 reappraisal, 68 Rhone River, 309 rills, 350 Rinjani National Park, Indonesia, 303–305 Rio Cumbaza Basin, Peru, 408–409 RISEMP, 169 risk, sources of, 26 river basin management, integrated, 310–311 rubber, 276 plantations, 379 runoff control, 375 Rural Development Regulation (RDR), 82 RUSLE model, 375 Russia, woodland certification, 122 S Sabah, Malaysia forest regeneration, 137, 187, 310

log landings rehabilitation, 364 sacred groves/forests/gardens, 234 safety net, forests as, 24 Saignon, 152 salvage logging, 342 banning, 341 SAPARD, 80, 82 Saracá-Taquera National Forest, Brazil, 373 scattered tree plantings, 245 scenarios, 62, 102–103 modelling tools, 102 Scolel Té project, Mexico, 173–174 Scotland commercial plantations, 380, 381 natural regeneration with grazing, 242 pine forest restoration, 323–324 SEAGA, 91 secondary forests, 246, 276 restoration potential, 321–322 seed availability, 264 collection, 141, 294 dispersal, 357, 388 seeding, direct, 244–245 Sequoia National Park, USA, 335 Shaanxi Province, China, 352–353 shifting agriculture, 274 Sichuan Province, China, 352 Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala, 299–300 Sierra Espuña, Spain, reforestation, 315–316 SilvaVoc, 12 silvopastoral systems, 169 SIMILE, 102 site-level restoration, 241–248 approach determination, 241–242 degrading influence reduction, 243 future needs, 248 management considerations, 247–248 reforestation for productivity and biodiversity, 246–247 tree cover initiation/ improvement, 244–246 site-scale survey methods, 20 SITES/Marxan, 119 skid trails rehabilitation, 364 Slovakia, Tatra National Park, 341 Smartwood Programme, 221 social values, 394 see also cultural values; socioeconomic needs Society for Ecological Restoration International (SERI), 421 Socio-economic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA), 91 socioeconomic needs, in rehabilitation projects, 406–407, 409–410, 412 socioeconomic research, 140 socioeconomic targets, 117 Soil Association, Woodmark Programme, 221 soil conditioners, 355 soil microcarbon analysis, 113 soil nutrient reduction, 195 soil protection, 351, 354 soil remediation, 372, 375 soil stabilisation, 266, 351 soil surface manipulations, 351, 354 Song Thanh Nature Reserve, Vietnam, 75, 122, 293 SOS Sahel, 89 South Africa outgrower schemes, 162 toxic conditions amelioration, 194 South Wales coalfield, 374 Southeast Asia, rattan production, 218 Spain firebreaks, 271–272 mining reclamation, 373–374 natural regeneration stimulation, 253 Prestige oil spill, 178 reforestation, 314–316 spatial modelling, 325 species knowledge of, research needs, 424 transfers of, 200–201 species-based targets, 117 species-site relationships, 295, 425 Sri Lanka, silvicultural treatment guidelines, 390 Index 435 staff training, in plantations, 396–397, 421 stakeholder(s) external, 60 primary, 60 in scenario development, 102 secondary, 60 stakeholder analysis, 91, 132 STEEP, 132 STELLA, 102, 303 Stockholm, Sweden, water supply, 230 storm disturbance forest restoration after, 339–343 key ideas, 340–341 Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia, 211 subsidies, government, 79 substrate fertility, 194 substrate stability, 193, 194–195 succession, 192 direction/manipulation, 194, 195, 244, 257–260 tools, 259–260 dynamics of, 254–255 minimal intervention design, 258–259 natural causes halting, 257 stimulation, 244 understanding, 257–258 suitability modelling, 115, 117–118 Sumatra, Indonesia, pulp plantations, 381 surveys, stakeholder, 61–62 sustainability analysis, 132 Sustainable Forest Market Transformation Initiative (SFMTI), 163 sustainable rehabilitation see rehabilitation, sustainable Sweden deadwood microhabitat recreation, 186 water quality protection, 230 Switzerland, continuous cover forestry, 53 SWOT, 132 systems approach, 417 T tactical interventions, 136–142 Tanzania, agroforestry, 243

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MaNaGED FOrEsts IN FUtUrE LaNDscaPEs - Biblioteca Digital do IPB