12 S. Mansourian • The Society for Ecological Restoration (SERI) have developed guidelines for restoration (see Guidelines for Developing and Managing Ecological Restoration Projects, 2000, at www.ser.org). • The International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO) developed some guidelines17on the restoration, management, and rehabilitation of degraded and secondary tropical forests. • The International Union of Forest Research Organisations (IUFRO) runs a special programme on correct usage of technical terms in forestry called SilvaVoc, available on its Web site: www.iufro.org/science/special/silvavoc/. • The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 18 has identified some guidance on when and where to restore (see Geography of Hope Update, When and Where to Consider Restorationin Ecoregional Planning at www.conserveonline.org). • In 2003, IUCN and WWF published a book, by David Lamb and Don Gilmour, 19 Rehabilitation and Restoration of Degraded Forests, which covers site-based techniques to restoration (summarised in a paper in this manual) but also highlights some of the gaps. • Cambridge Press has produced a Handbook of Ecological Restoration, 20 which is a two-volume handbook containing a large amount of material on the diverse aspects of restoration. It should also be noted that a number of state forest services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture have produced guidelines for planting trees. However, while these guidelines may have some applicability for very specific cases (issues dealing with one or another specific species), they are of limited value for restoration within ecoregions or large and biologically and structurally complex areas. Tools available to address specific elements of restoration are summarised in other chapters of this manual. 17 ITTO, 2002. 18 TNC, 2002. 19 Lamb and Gilmour, 2003. 20 Perrow and Davy, 2002. 4. Future Needs In the context of terminology related to restoration, given the flurry of interest, concepts, and definitions being touted, there is a need for • a set of widely accepted definitions (such as those of SERI) to be used more systematically and rigorously; • efforts and resources to be more focussed on the “doing” than on the “defining”; • greater exchanges, debates, and sharing of experiences in order to disseminate the accepted concepts and the positive experiences; and • the accepted definitions in the restoration field to be shared with other relevant expert groups, such as development workers, foresters, extension officers, etc. References Baer, S. 1996. Rehabilitation of Disused Limestone Quarries Through Reafforestation (Baobab Farm, Mombasa, Kenya). World Bank/Unep Africa Forestry Policy Forum, Nairobi, August 29–30, 1996. Faralala. 2003. Rapport de Reconnaissance dans Cinq Paysages Forestiers. WWF, Madagascar. ITTO Policy Series No. 13. 2002. Guidelines on the Restoration, Management and Rehabilitation of Degraded and Secondary Tropical Forest. Yokohama, Japan. Lamb, D., and Gilmour, D. 2003. Rehabilitation and Restoration of Degraded Forests. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, and WWF, Gland, Switzerland. Ormerod, S.J. 2003. Restorationin applied ecology: editor’s introduction. Journal of Applied Ecology 40:44–50. Perrow, M., and Davy A., eds. 2002. Handbook of Ecological Restoration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. Society for Ecological Restoration International. Science and Policy Working Group. 2002.The SER Primer on Ecological Restoration, www.ser.org/. Stanturf, J.A., and Madsen, P. 2002. Restoration concepts for temperate and boreal forests of North America and Western Europe. Plant Biosystems 136(2):143–158.
The Nature Conservancy (TNC). 2002. Geography of Hope Update: When and Where to Consider Restorationin Ecoregional Planning. www.conserveonline.org. United Nations Framework Conference on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Subsidiary Body for Scientific 2. Overview of ForestRestoration Strategies and Terms 13 and Technological Advice. 2003. Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry: Definitions and Modalities for Including Afforestation and Reforestation Activities Under Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol. Eighteenth session, Bonn, June 4–13, 2003.