30 M. Hobley resilience of tropical hillside communities through forest landscape restoration. Information Paper 2 IUCN and SDC, www.iucn.org/themes/ceesp/ index.html. Lamb, D., and Gilmour, D. 2003. Rehabilitation and Restoration of Degraded Forests. IUCN and WWF, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Molnar, A., Scherr, S.J., and Khare, A. 2004. Who conserves the world’s forests? Community-driven strategies to protect forests and respect rights. Forest Trends, and Ecoagriculture Partners, Washington, DC, www.forest-trends.org. Ribot, J.C. 2002. Democratic Decentralisation of Natural Resources: Institutionalising Popular Participation. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. Scherr, S.J., White, A., and Kaimowitz, D. 2003. Making markets work for forest communities. International Forestry Review 5(1):67–73. Sunderlin, W.D., Angelsen, A., and Wunder, S. 2004. Forests and poverty alleviation. CIFOR, Bogor, www.cifor.cgiar.org. Westoby, J. 1989. Introduction to World Forestry. Basil Blackwell, Oxford. World Bank. 2001. World Development Report 2000–2001. World Bank, Washington. Wunder, S. 2001. Poverty alleviation and tropical forests—what scope for synergies? World Development 29(11):1817–1833. Additional Reading Forestry Research Programme (FRP). 2004. Community forestry gets the credit. Forestry Research Programme Research Summary 006, FRP, Kent.
5 Restoring ForestLandscapesin the Face of Climate Change Jennifer Biringer and Lara J. Hansen Key Points to Retain Climate change increases the need for restoration, both to help forest systems to manage existing changes and to buffer them against likely changes in the future by increasing areas of natural, healthy forest systems. Care needs to be taken to avoid oversimplistic reliance on forests for carbon sequestration, and attempts at restoration to increase carbon storage must be assessed carefully to judge their true worth. Tools such as vulnerability analyses can help to design effective restoration strategies, which are likely to include reduction of fragmentation, increasing connectivity, development of effective buffer zones, and maintenance of genetic diversity. 1. Background and Explanation of the Issue Climate change is arguably the greatest contemporary threat to biodiversity. It is already affecting ecosystems of all kinds and these impacts are expected to become more dramatic as the climate continues to change due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, mostly from fossil fuel combustion. While restoration is made more diffi- cult by climate change, it can conversely be seen as a possible adaptive management approach for enhancing the resilience of ecosystems to these changes. Climate change will result in added physical and biological stresses to forest ecosystems, including drought, heat, increased evapotranspiration, altered seasonality of hydrology, pests, disease, and competition; the strength and type of effect will depend on the location. Such stresses will compound existing nonclimatic threats to forest biodiversity, including overharvesting,invasive species,pollution,and land conversion. This will result in forest ecosystems changing in composition and location. Therefore, in order to increase the potential for success, it will be necessary to consider these changes when designing restoration projects. On the other hand, restoration projects can also be viewed as a key aspect of enhancing ecosystem resilience to climate change. Human development has resulted in habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation. A first step inincreasing resilience to the effects of climate change is enhancing or protecting the ecosystem’s natural ability to respond to stress and change. Research suggests that this is best achieved with “healthy” and intact systems as a starting point, which can draw on their own internal diversity to have natural adaptation or acclimation potential, 48 and therefore greater resilience. Any restoration activities that enhance the ecological health of a system can 48 Kumaraguru and Beamish, 1981; McLusky et al, 1986. 31