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Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

56 N. Dudley et al Box

56 N. Dudley et al Box 7.1. The stages in a protect–manage–restore process ✓ Defining our own conservation targets: As stakeholders, conservation organisations need to start with some ideas of the landscape mix that they are aiming for, including ideas about geographical areas and ecological processes of primary interest. Reaching these targets will require a mix of protection, management, and restoration. ✓ Learning about the needs and expectations of others: At an early stage it is important to get an initial idea about the other key stakeholders and their relationships, what they need and want, and what they are planning. While the focus will be on economic or development issues, culture, history, expectations within society, level of development, and spiritual needs are all important. ✓ Defining the landscape(s): The concept of “landscape” has many different meanings; a conservation programme will usually work within a predetermined “conservation landscape,” but it is important to identify any “cultural landscapes” nested within or overlapping the conservation landscape: e.g., a village, land used by nomadic pastoralists, or a timber concession. ✓ Assessing current/potential benefits from the landscape: The next stage involves assessment to identify lost, current, and potential future values from the landscape. While conservationists tend to focus on biodiversity, assessment also takes full account of social, cultural, and economic values. The extent to which this is a participatory process can be decided on a case-by-case basis. Including stakeholders also means that assessment is part of the negotiation process. ✓ Developing land-use scenarios: Integration of potential conservation and development actions to develop scenarios including a combination of elements such as protected areas; other protected forests (set asides, watershed protection etc); well-managed forests; areas needing restoration; and other compatible and competing land uses.All these factors interact. What mosaic will work best? Are we looking at one “master plan” or a pattern that emerges gradually over time? ✓ Reconciling land use options: The approach is predicated on the idea that trades-offs among social, economic, and environmental values are often essential and are acceptable if overall values are maintained or enhanced within the landscape. ✓ Decisions: In some situations government(s), nongovernmental organisations, corporate interests, and communities may agree on a package of actions within one action plan. In many other cases, negotiations are likely to be continuing and sporadic. Here it is unlikely that a single master plan could be agreed; rather, decisions will be over smaller parcels of land within a framework that will continue to evolve. ✓ Implementation (strategic interventions): Some of the resulting actions will take place at the site level and may involve creating the right conditions for natural regeneration, selective tree planting to reconnect forest fragments, or community initiatives to improve fire management. Other interventions may be necessary at a landscape or even larger scale, e.g., working with governments to realign reforestation programmes. ✓ Monitoring and learning: Much of what we will be attempting with the landscape approach is quite new, and therefore it is especially important to ensure that progress is monitored effectively and that

3.5. Gap Analysis Several methodologies exist for identifying gaps in existing forest systems. For example, a WWF Canada methodology used enduring landform features to identify likely past vegetation, 86 while another developed by the United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Centre(UNEP-WCMC) used analysis of current forest cover. 87 4. Future Needs Although restoration needs are increasingly being addressed within broader-scale conservation, they generally remain less well supported in terms of approaches and methodologies than, for example, planning of protected areas. These needs include the following: Prioritisation: There is a need for better tools for prioritisation of areas for restoration, for example to balance the importance of connectivity with core areas, identification of microhabitat gaps in current forest cover, calculation of minimum viable areas, etc. Decision support: Methodologies are needed for balancing social and ecological values, including participatory methods. Incorporating a range of management schemes into existing decision support tools: Currently, decision support tools consider an area either protected, or not, based on the input of the user. More sophisticated tools are needed that can handle a wider range of “protection” schemes (e.g., sustainably managed forests). 7. Why Do We Need to Consider Restoration in a Landscape Context? 57 lessons are both used to improve programmes as they develop and are also transmitted around and beyond the immediate conservation programme. At a larger scale, combining monitoring of 86 Iacobelli et al, 1994. 87 UNEP-WCMC, 2002. many individual projects, along with some additional indicators that transcend individual project work, will be needed to measure progress over the whole landscape. There is also the need for some degree of advocacy and explanation, to encourage those involved in broad-scale planning to consider restoration, particularly in the case of restoring forest quality. Some of these tools are being developed during current forest landscape restoration projects, but it is still too early to judge their success. References Aldrich, M., et al. 2004. Integrating Forest Protection, Management and Restoration at a Landscape Scale. WWF, Gland, Switzerland. Dudley, N., and Mansourian, S. 2000. Forest Landscape Restoration and WWF’s Conservation Priorities. WWF International, Gland, Switzerland. Dudley, N., and Stolton, S. 2004. Biological diversity, tree species composition and environmental protection in regional FRA-2000. Geneva Timber and Forest Discussion Paper 33. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Geneva. Fairhead, J., and Leach, M. 1996. Misreading the African Landscape: Society and Ecology in a Forest-Savanna Mosaic. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Garforth, M., and Dudley, N. 2003. Forest Renaissance. Published in association with the Forestry Commission and WWF UK, Edinburgh and Godalming. Holenstein, B. 1995. Forests and Wood in Switzerland. Federal Office of Environment, Forests and Landscape. Swiss Forest Agency, Bern. Iacobelli, T., Kavanagh, K., and Rowe, S. 1994. A Protected Areas Gap Analysis Methodology: Planning for the Conservation of Biodiversity. World Wildlife Fund Canada, Toronto. Loucks, C., Springer, J., Palminteri, S., Morrison, J., and Strand, H. 2004. From the Vision to the

Forest Landscape Restoration - IUCN
Landscape restoration