110 German Treatment of Prisoners and Wounded. the tremendous difference between German deeds and French or English platitudes about "humanity" and "civilization." 1 Still more characteristic than the universal and hysterical delirium in which the French people committed untold cruelties upon hapless wounded men during the first few months of the war, is the brutal behavior of the population towards the seriously-wounded prisoners of exchange in the spring of 1915. One of many neutral utterances upon these abuses is that of the "St. Gallener Tageblatt." A prominent member of the Swiss Red Cross Society expresses himself thus in this journal: "I have described the dignified and splendid behavior of the German public during the departure of the French prisoners at Konstanz. I would that I might say the same of the French public at Lyons. I do not wish to deal with details in this place. But I may well say that during the departure of the train at the station I saw scenes which were among the most ugly and revolting that I have ever come across, and I have spent many years abroad in the world. I do not wish to blame the incited mob, nor the women and girls, nor the men and boys who in word and cry and attitude abused the Germans, showing no regard even for cripples,—no, the entire blame for all this is to be laid at the doors of an unscrupulous, maniacal Parisian press." 1 On October 23rd the report given below was made from Darmstadt: "The French wounded in the Reserve Hospital of the Darmstadt Municipal Hall desire to give a voluntary expression of their gratitude for the excellent care and attention that have been shown them. They would like to see that every wounded German soldier who has been dismissed from the hospital as healed, is given a certificate specially written by one of the Frenchmen and bearing the official stamp of the hospital, so that in case he be taken prisoner, he may show this paper and thus be accorded as good treatment in France as the French receive at the hands of the Germans. The text of this certificate is as follows: "Should the bearer of this card be wounded or taken prisoner, we hope that he will be as well treated and taken care of as we have been in the Municipal Hall at Darmstadt." (signatures.) The French press may easily ascertain the truth of this communication, which may also be confirmed from a number of other German cities. (See the open letter of the French prisoners at Munster in Wurtemberg, October 26th, 1914, to the Minister of War; also that of the prisoners at Weimar in the "Frankfurter Zeitung," No. 319, 1914). It is significant that these grateful French prisoners should have thought it necessary that the German soldier fallen into French hands should be provided with some security for insuring good treatment!
Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. Ill Further details as to the treatment of prisoners of war in Germany are given in Chapter 14 of the original edition, especially in connection with the concentration camps of the English and the "Gefangenenlager" of the Germans. CHAPTER X. Franc-Tireur Warfare and the Maltreatment of the Defenseless Before and After the Declaration of War. Also the Imprisonment of Civilians. Franc-tireur Warfare. 1. From the very first day of the beginning of hostilities the so-called franc-tireur warfare was waged in the bloodiest and most fanatical fashion against the German army in France and Belgium. By this is meant not only the war carried on by the so-called irregular troops but the participation of the whole native population, man, woman and child. It would be superfluous to cite all the details in this place, for these alone would suffice to fill a large volume. Thousands, yes, tens of thousands of our German warriors are witnesses to confirm this wanton violation of the international rules made to govern warfare on land—especially those in Articles 1 and 2 of the "Rules and Regulations of War on Land," as determined by their adoption on October 18th, 1907. Every letter sent home to people in Germany by their relatives in the field is filled with indignant complaints. The "hysteria of war," to be sure, may play a great part in these, just as it does in the gossip of the trenches. He who would judge things in a purely objective light will be forced to exercise considerable scepticism in various places. And yet despite all this, there is a terrible quantity of the most ghastly evidence. Here, too, we can presume to give only a few choice specimens of typical examples as a basis for our expositions. * 1 See also the pamphlet published by the "Deutsche Verlagsanstalt" in Stuttgart, under the title of "Franc-tireur Warfare in Belgium. Confessions of the Belgian Press," with 4 illustrations. In this it is made clear how the Belgian newspapers pursued a systematic course of incitement of the populace and how in effect the franc-tireur war was carried out along definite lines.