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WHO ARE THE HUNS?

WHO ARE THE HUNS?

290 Breaches of Sea-Law

290 Breaches of Sea-Law by England. the German coast. But a blockade to which neutrals are also supposed to submit, can be recognized as valid, according to international law, only if it is proved to be effective, in other words it must be maintained by a fighting force that is sufficient to prevent all actual access to the enemy coast. The Paris Conference has established the law that a "fictive blockade" no longer exists. But England now attempts to make this "fictive blockade" valid everywhere. According to undisputed reports, the British, as early as October, 1914, demanded a deposit from all neutral ships that left English ports,—this guaranty to be three times the value of the cargo. This sum is paid back only after the British consul in a neutral port has certified the arrival of the vessel. This was intended to prevent the neutral ship from proceeding to a German port. Surely this "paper blockade" in connection with neutral ships is something which must shortly become unendurable. In other cases the English have determined that relative contraband was to be forwarded only upon a written declaration ofj the shipper's that this relative contraband was really destined for the needs of the neutral land in question. Here England returns to her theory and practice of the "continuous voyage." This was done away with in the London Declaration upon the proposal of Germany, as is clearly established in Articles 33 and 35. This is as much as to say that relative contraband, even though it be eventually destined for the enemy, is not subject to seizure even when it is to be unloaded in a neutral intermediate port. England on the contrary, seizes as contraband, or as that which she considers as contraband, all in violation of the most express provisions regarding positive contraband, wares upon neutral ships—even when these are under way to neutral ports. II. It appears to be the chief endeavor of England to antagonize all neutrals by the way in which she interprets the accepted customs of sea-law as laid down in the Declaration of London, and to reveal to them by drastic object-lessons the whole brutality embodied in the English tyranny of the seas. And

Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 291 all this is shown up the more glaringly when contrasted with the provisions of the German Prize Law. Who, we would ask, is the "barbarian" here ?—who the "mad dog ?" Apparently that power which strives in this day to maintain the old piracy laws of the freebooters—with some few modifications. The question of food ex-ports from the United States and other neutral countries is of the greatest importance. These are in themselves considered as "relative contraband." England, in gross violation of the laws of all civilized nations, proceeds to regard them without exception as "absolute" contraband, although they are not intrinsically meant exclusively for purposes of war. In this, England departs from her own customs as well as those of the entire world, which had always permitted the delivery of food-supplies to the civil populations of enemy countries. The American Government has also assumed the same position (see the case of the "Wilhelmina" in February, 1915, also the note of December 28, 1914, in which the attitude of England during the Boer War as maintained by Lord Salisbury and as hitherto considered valid in English policy was made clear, —see also next Chapter upon American neutrality). It has always been recognized that a shipment of food-supplies from a neutral country to a neutral country must remain free from seizure. When the cargo of the "Wilhelmina," which represented a value of more than $200,000, and consisted of wheat, maize, oats, peas, and canned meats, was being shipped, the firm took the special precaution of obtaining from the German Ambassador Gount Bernstorff, a certificate to the effect that the cargo was not destined for the German Government. This was a guaranty that the cargo of this vessel was solely for the use of the civil population. The German Government had also given its consent that an American consul should attend to the matter of the distribution. The British Government replied that inasmuch as the German Government had taken over the entire matter of provisioning the population of the land, no such distinction •could be made. The "Wilhelmina" was captured by French ships. This action compelled Germany to resort to the stringent measure of waging war by means of her submarines,—as she has now done since the 18th of February, 1915. 19*

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    • Copyright 1915 by Georg Reimer

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    IV A Foreword. most brilliant judic

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    VI A Foreword. to do. And I hold th

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    CONTENTS. PART ONE. Page: Rules and

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    PART ONE. Rules and Regulations of

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 3 in fav

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 5 "Gentl

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 7 cellor

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. •9 its

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 11 We th

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 13 nothi

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 15 that

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 17 Belgi

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 19 Grey

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 21 but o

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 23 Omega

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 25 i "Ne

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 27 the d

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 29 "Thro

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 31 "From

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 33 which

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 35 Imper

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 37 3. Th

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 39 divis

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 41 Evide

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 43 There

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 45 subst

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    Mobilization and the Morality of Na

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    The Employment of Barbarous and War

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    The Employment of Barbarous and War

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    Violation of the Neutral Suez Canal

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    Violation of the Neutral Suez Canal

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    Violation of the Neutral Suez Canal

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. "

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. 6

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. 7

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. 7

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 75 empi

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 77' aga

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 79 to m

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 81 inte

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    Treatment of Diplomatic Representat

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    Treatment of Diplomatic Representat

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 87 l

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 99 t

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    German Treatment of Prisoners and W

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    German Treatment of Prisoners and W

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. I

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    French Outrages. 131 to the ground

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    English Outrages. 133 Boer concentr

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    The Frenzy of France. 135 made a st

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    German Restraint and Order. 137 the

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    Inhumane Methods of Warfare. 139 wa

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    Inhumane Methods of Warfare. 143 fr

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    Slaughter of Prisoners. 151 which m

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    Compulsory Treason. 153 the Frenchm

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    Premiums for Murder, etc. 155 this

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    Premiums for Murder, etc. 157 serva

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    Premiums for Murder, etc. 159 their

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    Russian Atrocities in East Prussia.

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    Russian Atrocities in East Prussia.

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    Russian Atrocities in East Prussia.

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    Russian Atrocities in East Prussia.

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    Pogroms and Other Russian Atrocitie

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    Pogroms and Other Russian Atrocitie

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    CHAPTER XIV. 173- The German Admini

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    German Administration in Belgium. 1

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    German Administration in Belgium. 1

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    Private Property in War. 179 perty,

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    The Conduct of German Troops. 181 t

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    The Conduct of German Troops. 183 c

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    The Conduct of German Troops. 185 p

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Ruses of War and Official Lies. 197

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    Ruses of War and Official Lies. 199

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    Ruses of War and Official Lies. 201

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    The Destruction of Telegraph Cables

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    + Add. — Subtract The Triple Ente

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    CHAPTER XXI. 229 A Few Remarks upon

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 341 accre

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 343 of co

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 345 consi

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 347 "Germ

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 349 of in

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 351 IV. T

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 353 or wh

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 355 misun

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    The "Submarine Blockade." 357 VI. I

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    False Colors and Ruses of War. 359

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    False Colors and Ruses of War. 361

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    False Colors and Ruses of War. 363

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    False Colors and Ruses of War. 365

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    CHAPTER XXXI. 367 Aggravation of th

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    The Case of the ' Lusitania." 369 t

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    The Case of the "Lusitania." 371 we

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    The Case of the "Lusitania." 373 "T

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    The Case of the "Lusitania." 375 mi

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Exchange ôf German-American Notes.

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Exchange of German-American Notes.

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    Italy's Betrayal of her Allies. 393

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    Italy's Betrayal of her Allies. 395

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    Italy's Betrayal of her Allies. 397

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    CHAPTER XXXII. A Final Political Su

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    A Final Political Survey. 401 arran

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    A Final Political Survey. 403 For t

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    A Final Political Survey. 405 This