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WHO ARE THE HUNS?

WHO ARE THE HUNS?

360 False Colors and

360 False Colors and Ruses of War. date of February 8th, 1915, announces: The British Foreign Office publishes the following declaration: "The use of the neutral flag is, with certain limitations, well established in practice as a ruse de guerre. The only effect in the case of a merchantman of wearing a flag other than her national flag is to compel the enemy to follow the ordinary obligations of naval warfare, and to satisfy himself as to the nationality of the vessel and of the character of her cargo by examination before capturing her and taking her into a Prize Court for adjudication. The British Government has always considered the use of British colors by a foreign vessel legitimate for the purpose of escaping capture. Such a practice not only involves no breach of international law, but is specifically recognized by the law of this country." In the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, it is enacted (Sec. 69) (1) as follows: "If a person uses the British flag and assumes the British national character on board a ship owned in whole or in part by any persons not qualified to own a British ship, for the purpose of making the ship appear to be a British ship, the ship shall be subject to forfeiture under this Act, unless the assumption has been made for the purpose of escaping capture by an enemy or by a foreign ship of war in the exercise of some belligerent right." And in the instructions to British Consuls 1914, it is stated: "A ship is liable to capture if its British character be improperly assumed except for the purpose of escaping capture. As we have in practice not objected to foreign merchant vessels using the British merchant flag as a ruse for the purpose of evading capture at sea at the hands of a belligerent, so we should maintain that in the converse case a British merchant vessel committed no breach of international law in assuming neutral colors for a similar purpose, if she thought fit to do so. - By the rules of international law, the customs of war, and the dictates of humanity, it is obligatory upon a belligerent to ascertain the character of a merchant vessel and of her cargo before capture. Germany has no right to disregard this

False Colors and Ruses of War. 361 obligation. To destroy ship, non-combatant crew, and cargo, as Germany has announced her intention of doing, is nothing less than an act of piracy on the high seas." The British Government acknowledges the misuse of neutral flags as ordered to protect the British merchant marine from attacks by German submarines. The justification advanced for the secret Admiralty order by the Foreign Office in London furnishes a conspicuous example of an awkward excuse, and is as inept as it is dishonest. There are only two codifications of international maritime law, dealing with the substitution of flags during times of war. The London Declaration of Sea Law of 1909, determines thus in Article 56: "The transfer of an enemy vessel to a neutral flag, effected after the outbreak of hostilities, is void unless it is proved that such transfer was not made in order to evade the consequences to which an enemy vessel, as such, is exposed. However, there is an absolute presumption that a transfer is void:—if the transfer has been made during a voyage or in a blockaded port." This applies to the case under consideration. England did not ratify the Declaration of London and is therefore averse to subscribing to its provisions whenever these may be deemed disadvantageous to her. Yet the English representatives at the London Conference voted in favor of all these rules and acknowledged them as customary and as valid. The second compilation of sea-law which treats of the substitution of flags, is the draft of a Hand Book upon the laws of naval warfare published under the auspices of "The Institute for International Law" during its session at Oxford in the year 1913. According to Article 15 of this Hand Book, the use of false flags is forbidden and is designated as "moyen perfide et barbarois" (a base and barbarous expedient). The delegate who expressed this view at Oxford was M. Fauchille of Paris. This Oxford Conference was attended by many of the most distinguished jurists of international law from all countries—among them U. S. Senator Elihu Root—and Professor Holland of Oxford, as well as Sir Thomas Barclay of London. The collaboration of these gentlemen, however, was not able

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    • Copyright 1915 by Georg Reimer

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    IV A Foreword. most brilliant judic

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    VI A Foreword. to do. And I hold th

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    CONTENTS. PART ONE. Page: Rules and

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    PART ONE. Rules and Regulations of

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 3 in fav

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 5 "Gentl

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 7 cellor

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. •9 its

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 11 We th

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 13 nothi

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 15 that

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 17 Belgi

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 19 Grey

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 21 but o

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 23 Omega

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 25 i "Ne

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 27 the d

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 29 "Thro

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 31 "From

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 33 which

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 35 Imper

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 37 3. Th

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 39 divis

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 41 Evide

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 43 There

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    The Neutrality of Belgium. 45 subst

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    Mobilization and the Morality of Na

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    Violation of Congo Acts. Colonial W

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    The Employment of Barbarous and War

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    The Employment of Barbarous and War

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    Violation of the Neutral Suez Canal

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    Violation of the Neutral Suez Canal

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    Violation of the Neutral Suez Canal

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. "

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. 6

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. 7

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    Chinese Neutrality and Kiao-Chau. 7

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 75 empi

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 77' aga

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 79 to m

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    The Use of Dum-Dum Bullets. 81 inte

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    Treatment of Diplomatic Representat

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    Treatment of Diplomatic Representat

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 87 l

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 89 5

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 91 u

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 93 a

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 95 t

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 99 t

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 101

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 103

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    Violations of Red Cross Rules. 105

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    German Treatment of Prisoners and W

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    German Treatment of Prisoners and W

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. I

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    Franc-Tireur Warfare and Cruelty. 1

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    French Outrages. 131 to the ground

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    English Outrages. 133 Boer concentr

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    The Frenzy of France. 135 made a st

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    German Restraint and Order. 137 the

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    Inhumane Methods of Warfare. 139 wa

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    Inhumane Methods of Warfare. 141 An

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    Inhumane Methods of Warfare. 143 fr

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    Atrocities of Allied Troops. 145 ha

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    Atrocities of Allied Troops. 147 I

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    Atrocities of Allied Troops. 149 ve

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    Slaughter of Prisoners. 151 which m

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    Compulsory Treason. 153 the Frenchm

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    Premiums for Murder, etc. 155 this

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    Premiums for Murder, etc. 157 serva

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    Premiums for Murder, etc. 159 their

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    Russian Atrocities in East Prussia.

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    Russian Atrocities in East Prussia.

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    Russian Atrocities in East Prussia.

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    Russian Atrocities in East Prussia.

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    Pogroms and Other Russian Atrocitie

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    Pogroms and Other Russian Atrocitie

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    CHAPTER XIV. 173- The German Admini

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    German Administration in Belgium. 1

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    German Administration in Belgium. 1

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    Private Property in War. 179 perty,

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    The Conduct of German Troops. 181 t

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    The Conduct of German Troops. 183 c

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    The Conduct of German Troops. 185 p

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Plundering and Destruction of Prope

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    Ruses of War and Official Lies. 197

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    Ruses of War and Official Lies. 199

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    Ruses of War and Official Lies. 201

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    The Destruction of Telegraph Cables

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    + Add. — Subtract The Triple Ente

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    The Triple Entente's Vendetta of Li

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    CHAPTER XXI. 229 A Few Remarks upon

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    French and Belgian "Atrocity Books.

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    German Refutations and Investigatio

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    German Refutations and Investigatio

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    German Refutations and Investigatio

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    German Refutations and Investigatio

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    Art and Warfare. 247 by the French

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    Art and Warfare. 249 On the 28th of

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    Art and Warfare. 251 pressly forbid

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    Bombardments by Aeroplanes. 253 the

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    Bombardments by Aeroplanes. 255 the

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    Bombardments by Aeroplanes. 257 bee

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    English Business Morals. 259 Contin

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    English Business Morals. 261 means

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    English Business Morals. 263 While

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    Economie War in the English Colonie

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    Economie War in the English Colonie

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    Violations of Neutral States. 269 w

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    Violations of Neutral States. 271 A

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    PART TWO. Questions of Legality in

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    England, Naval Laws and Ourselves.

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    England, Naval Laws and Ourselves.

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    England, Naval Laws and Ourselves.

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    Starvation as a Weapon. 281 take pl

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 283

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 285

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 287

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 289

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 291

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 293

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    Breaches of Sea-Law by England. 295

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    The North Sea as a Zone of War. 297

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    The North Sea as a Zone of War. 299

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    American "Neutrality." 301 logical

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    American "Neutrality." 303 press (f

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    American "Neutrality." 305 of to-da

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    American "Neutrality." 307 •natio

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