42 The Neutrality of Belgium. churches are usually mentioned as excellent posts of observation ! The entire course of the River Scheldt is described in the same detailed manner. These handy volumes thus form excellent guides for the leaders, General Staff officers and noncommissioned officers of every grade. A plan or survey of the houses available for troop quarterings, arranged according to parishes and villages, is also given, also a diagram of important landmarks for the use of flying-corps commanders. This book of memoranda, prepared in the most careful and comprehensive fashion, is supplemented by a map of the landing-places. It bears the inscription "Confidential" and the date July, 1914. These military-topographical hand-books were not prepared shortly before nor during the war. On the contrary the material has been collected ever since 1909 by means of single and special investigations, as appears from remarks in some of the division of the work. The first volume was printed in 1912. The leading threads of all this are centered in preparations for a campaign—preparations extending over five years, the thoroughness of which stands proved beyond all doubt. 2. The "Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung" of December 14th writes thus in the matter of England's jugglery with the neutrality of Belgium: "New and serious evidences of guilt have recently been discovered as to the complicity in crime of the English and the Belgians. Some time ago Grant Watson, a secretary of the English legation, was captured in Brussels. He had remained behind in the building of the British Ministry after the Ministry itself had been removed to Antwerp and later on to Havre. Grant Watson was recently caught in the act of attempting to destroy certain documents which he had been able to remove unobserved from the Ministry at the time of his capture. An examination of these papers resulted in the discovery that they were documents of a most private nature containing data relative to the mobilization of the Belgian army and the defense of Antwerp, dated 1913—14. Among these papers there were certain circular letters addressed to the most important Belgian headquarters and bearing the signature of the Belgian Minister of War and that of the Chief of the Belgian General Staff.
The Neutrality of Belgium. 43 There was also a draft of the session of the Commission for the base of supplies at Antwerp, dated the 27th of May, 1913. The fact that these papers were found in the English Legation is conclusive proof of the fact that the Belgian Government kept no military secrets from the English Government and that, moreover, both governments stood in close and permanent military relationship with each other. A written notice found among the papers, for the destruction of which the English secretary showed such concern, is of peculiar interest. The text of this reads as follows: 1. The French officers have received orders to join their divisions on the afternoon of the 27th of this month. 2. The stationmaster at Feignies received orders on the same day to send all available covered wagons, suitable for the purpose of transporting troops, in the direction of Maubeuge. Communicated through the Gendarmerie brigade in Frameries. It should be remarked here that Feignies is a railway station on the line Maubeuge—Mons, about three kilometres from the Belgian frontier; Frameries is on the same line in Belgium, ten kilometres from the Belgian frontier. It is to be seen from this notice that France had already taken its first measures for mobilization on the 2jth of July, and that the English Legation was at once advised of this fact through Belgian authorities." If still further proofs were necessary of the relationships that existed between England and Belgium, then this newlydiscovered material provides a most valuable complement. It proves once more that Belgium had surrendered its neutrality in favor of the Entente, and that it had become an active member of the coalition that had been formed to combat the German Empire. For England, Belgian neutrality meant in fact nothing more than a "scrap of paper," so far as this was in accordance with its interests. This it proceeded to set aside as soon as it served its purpose so to do. It is obvious that the English Government made use of the violation of Belgian neutrality by Germany really as a pretext in order to justify its war against us in the eyes of the world and the English people. It was a "neutrality" with which England did indeed proceed in a truly cynical manner, as proved by the use to which Antwerp