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Green economies around the world? - Sustainable Europe ...

Green economies around the world? - Sustainable Europe ...

“large“ and

“large“ and “small“ consuming countries If the “big five” material consuming countries – China, the United States, India, Brazil and the Russian Federation – were to enter into a global resource management agreement, together, they would be deciding how more than half of all globally consumed materials would be used. Further, combined with the 15 high consumer countries that follow them, this group of 20 countries could influence about three quarters of global material consumption. By contrast, the 100 countries with the lowest absolute material consumption together consume only around 1.5 % of all globally consumed materials. Absolute resource consumption is very unequally distributed across countries. Populous, high income and resource rich countries generally consume more materials in absolute terms than others. Since 2002 China has been the top global consumer of most materials in absolute terms. In 2008, it consumed twice as much as the United States. Absolute material consumption of high and low consuming countries 1980 – 2008 billion tonnes 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 8 11 Germany India China USSR USA 18 Brazil India USSR China USA 1 10 12 22 Russia Brazil India China USA 1980 1990 2000 2008 1 13 13 26 Russia Brazil India USA China 1 16 14 37 13 % 2 % Hundred lowest consuming countries Middle consuming countries Sixth to twentieth largest consumer Five largest consumers 4 % Absolute resource consumption is especially relevant from an environmental perspective because it indicates the overall magnitude of various environmental pressures related to material use as explained in chapter 4. The share of the “big five” in global resource consumption grew from 48 % to 54 % between 1980 and 2008, while the share of the next 15 high consuming countries of the top 20 ( mainly OECD members and populous developing countries ) decreased. The 100 least consuming countries are predominantly small islands and city-states but also include developing countries with several million inhabitants, for example Rwanda and Eritrea. Their material consumption doubled in absolute terms, but their share in global resource consumption remained constant at around 1.5 % of globally used materials since 1980. Absolute material consumption of countries and share in global material consumption in 2008 Country size is proportional to its share in global material consumption 29 30 2% 7% 28% 3 % 2% 2%

Mexico Lebanon Panama Cuba 120 100 80 60 120 40 100 20 80 0 60 40 rage = 10.2 tonnes 100 0 Consumption: from survival to affluence Average material consumption in per capita terms varies greatly across the globe. As observed in countries with the lowest per capita consumption, the minimal consumption for survival is around two tonnes per person per year, which includes materials for the basic needs of food and shelter. The highest average per capita consumption is sixty times the lowest and is dominated by minerals for large construction activities and by the consumption of fossil fuels. Material consumption per capita 2008 tonnes per capita tonnes per capita Qatar Ireland Australia Uruguay Chile tonnes per capita 120 20 United Arab Emirates Finland Oman Kuwait Equatorial Guinea Mongolia Bahrain Singapore United States Slovenia Cyprus New Zealand Peru Denmark Estonia Canada Iceland Kazakhstan Bermuda Sweden Norway Portugal Spain New Caledonia Maldives Faroe Islands Austria Czech Republic Botswana Suriname Paraguay Bulgaria Greece Brunei Darussalam Saudi Arabia Guyana Poland Belgium - Luxembourg Trinidad and Tobago Korea, Rep. Macedonia, FYR Germany France Argentina Libya Brazil China Israel Gabon Bosnia and Herzegovina Jamaica Mexico Lebanon Panama Cuba Mauritania Swaziland Costa Rica Jordan Bolivia Puerto Rico Tunisia 60 31 32 Russian Federation Malta Namibia Bhutan Serbia and Montenegro Switzerland St. Kitts and Nevis Turkmenistan Iran South Africa Seychelles Netherlands French Polynesia Slovakia Lithuania Croatia Belize Italy Belarus Romania Barbados Venezuela United Kingdom Latvia Malaysia Antigua and Barbuda Fiji Islands Liechtenstein Cayman Islands Mauritius Hungary Turks and Caicos Islands Japan Global average Turkey Global average = 10.2 tonnes Global Global average average = 10.2 = 10.2 tonnes tonnes Mauritania Swaziland Qatar Costa Ireland Rica Australia Jordan Uruguay Bolivia Puerto Chile Rico United Arab Emirates Tunisia Ukraine Finland Ecuador Oman Armenia Kuwait Equatorial Papua New Guinea G. Mongolia Zambia Uzbekistan Bahrain Singapore Algeria United Colombia States Slovenia Albania St. Vincent Cyprus New Morocco Zealand Vanuatu Peru Denmark Somalia Grenada Estonia Canada Sudan Thailand Iceland Kazakhstan Egypt Bermuda Guinea Viet Sweden Nam Honduras Norway Kyrgyzstan Portugal Nicaragua Spain New Caledonia Mali Central Maldives Afr. Rep. Faroe Guatemala Islands Azerbaijan Austria Solomon Czech Republic Islands Botswana Syria Dominican Suriname Rep. Indonesia Paraguay Bulgaria Ghana Burkina Greece Faso Brunei Darussalam Samoa Saudi Senegal Arabia Moldova Guyana El Salvador Poland Belgium - Luxembourg St. Lucia Trinidad and Tobago Chad Korea, Dominica Rep. Macedonia, Ethiopia FYR Germany Benin Zimbabwe France Congo, Argentina DR Libya Iraq Cape Verde Brazil Tanzania China Israel Laos Cameroon Gabon Russian Federation India Lesotho Malta Namibia Eritrea Madagascar Bhutan Serbia and Montenegro Djibouti Switzerland Kiribati St. Kitts and Yemen Nevis Turkmenistan Cambodia Uganda Iran South Kenya Africa Seychelles Pakistan Netherlands Sri Lanka French Polynesia Angola Slovakia Georgia Gambia, Lithuania The Croatia Niger Philippines Belize North Korea Italy Guinea-Bissau Belarus Romania Tonga Barbados Nigeria Bahamas, Venezuela The United Myanmar Kingdom Latvia Togo Malaysia Rwanda Antigua and Cote Barbuda d›Ivoire Sierra Fiji Islands Leone Liechtenstein Nepal Cayman Sao Islands Tome Mauritius Liberia Hungary Mayotte Turks and Caicos Burundi Islands Malawi Japan Global Mozambique average Turkey Haiti Bosnia and Herzegovina Timor-Leste Afghanistan Jamaica Bangladesh Mexico Congo, Lebanon Rep. Comoros Panama Tuvalu Cuba 80 Biomass Minerals Fossil fuels Metals Other Globally, a person uses at least 1.5 tonnes of biomass and 0.3 tonnes of minerals per year. Biomass is predominantly used for nutrition and as a source of energy; minerals are mainly used for shelter. In general, rising material consumption goes along with an increasing use of fossil fuels, of minerals and metals for public and private infrastructure and of metals for technical equipment. Biomass consumption increases only slightly with higher income. High amounts of biomass use are mainly due to large animal-stocks. Large and luxurious construction activities such as the Pearl-Qatar or Palm Islands in Dubai ( United Arab Emirates ) are responsible for per capita material consumption values beyond 50 tonnes per year. Often, small countries, islands and city-states import huge amounts of single commodities in one year, e.g. petroleum, minerals or ships, and hardly any of these commodities in the next year; sometimes, they even export them ( partly further processed ) in the following years. Thus, their material consumption can fluctuate wildly, exceeding 100 tonnes per capita in some years, and falling below zero in some material categories in other years. Inequalities between countries with high and low average per capita consumption declined slightly over the past 30 years due to an increasing number of medium and high consuming countries. In 1980 and 2008, the bottom 10 % of countries (in terms of per capita material consumption) maintained a constant share of 2.5 % of global consumption, whereas the share of the top 10 % declined from 33 % to 27 %. Mauritania Swaziland Costa Rica Jordan Bolivia Puerto Rico Tunisia

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