Capturing the Zeitgeist Native German Loanwords in ... - Skemman
16 Þorsteinn Hjaltason numbers from the corpora. Here, I will also compare the results from BNC to the results from COCA to demonstrate the difference between the frequency and usage of German loanwords in UK and US English. 6.2 All Words Of all 6,010 words (the main part and the appendix) in GLIE, 1,266 are to be classified as native German, which means 21%. The proportion is lower if we just count the words in the main part: 910 of 5,389 which makes 17%. In the Appendix, it is the other way around, because 57% or 356 of 621 words are native German, although only 8% of them occur in either corpus. In addition to the words in GLIE, twenty one words were found in various lists, like Knapp's German English Words and Wikipedia, but some of the words in these lists did not qualify because they were dialectal (Yiddish or coming from some local dialect). The distribution between corpora (and those occurring in neither corpus) in the main part of GLIE and the Appendix, as well as the few words that are not in GLIE are presented in Table 1: Table 1: All 1,288 native German Loanwords found All words Main part Appendix Not in GLIE 1,288 910 356 22 Both in BNC and COCA 291 23% 269 30% 11 3% 11 50% Just in BNC 60 5% 54 6% 4 1% 2 9% Just in COCA Occurs in NEITHER 186 14% 164 18% 15 4% 7 32% corpus 751 58% 423 46% 326 92% 2 9% TOTAL 1,288 100% 910 100% 356 100% 22 100% All words Occurs somewhere Occurs in NEITHER 537 42% corpus 751 58% TOTAL 1,288 100% In the appendix, the total 1,288 German loanwords are presented in two tables (Table 11 and Table 12): first those that DO NOT occur in either corpus, and then those found in either corpus. In table 11, I only include the word class, the semantic field and Cannon’s Degree of acculturation. The second one is much more detailed with seven
17 Þorsteinn Hjaltason columns (word, word class, meaning, semantic field, BNC frequencies, COCA frequencies and degree of acculturation) because the focus is on this part in this research. Note that I only include a translation with the words in the latter table because they represent an active vocabulary. When the results from the two corpora of the occurring words are viewed separately, both corpora have almost an equal number of hapax legomena, 91 in BNC and 95 in COCA. The majority of the German loanwords in this study are nouns as can be seen in table 2, still in GLIE the proportion of nouns is even higher or 90%. There are also some adjectives, but few words of other classes including multi-word expressions or bound forms (like über alles 'above everything'). The distribution of the word classes is shown in table 2: Table 2: Distribution of Word Classes for all 1,288 German Loanwords Word Class Number of Words % Noun 1,040 81% Adjective 154 12% Verb 36 3% Adverb 8 0.5% Interjection 16 1% Phrases 33 2.5% Prefix 1 6.3 The semantic fields As mentioned before, the most frequently occurring semantic fields in GLIE, are to be explained by the number of Greco-Latin technical terms which are habitual in these fields. When the GLIE vocabulary has been filtered of these terms, the situation is somewhat different. In table 3, the ten most frequent semantic fields in GLIE are compared with the twenty most frequent semantic fields of the entire vocabulary that this thesis is based on. Columns three and four are only to show comparison with the 751 non-occurring words, with the semantic fields for these words being further presented in table 4.