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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF EX SITU

THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION Asia and the Pacific Virtually all Asian countries that submitted country reports indicated that they maintained both seed genebanks and field genebanks, but less than half stored germplasm in vitro, and only India, Indonesia, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan and the Philippines used cryopreservation. China reported having 53 separate storage facilities, India 74 and the Philippines 45. Several other Asian countries reported having up to ten storage facilities. Long-, medium- and short-term facilities are available in most countries, although the numbers of each differed markedly among countries. While Japan and Pakistan reported meeting international standards for germplasm storage, according to the country reports, many other countries were unable to meet such standards indicating that there was room for improvement. The reasons stated for failure to meet international standards included lack of funds, insufficient and inadequately trained staff, lack of space, poor equipment and unreliable electricity supplies. Field genebanks predominate in the Pacific Islands countries, reflecting the regional importance of crops such as taro, coconut and banana that cannot be stored as seed. Fiji and Papua New Guinea were the only countries in the subregion to report having in vitro storage. No information was supplied on the existence of long-, medium- or short-term seed storage facilities, although numerous problems were reported with regards to the vulnerability of germplasm stored under field conditions. Americas All nine South American countries that submitted country reports, reported that they maintained both seed and field genebanks and stored germplasm in vitro. Only Ecuador reported using cryopreservation, although the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela was preparing for it. Long-, medium- and short-term storage facilities were available in all countries. Brazil reported having 383 separate conservation facilities, Argentina 33 and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela 26. Most other countries reported fewer than ten. Uruguay and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela reported that they had built new long-term facilities in the last ten years. Several countries met internationally agreed standards for genebank operations, but widespread problems of funding and staffing were reported. The majority of countries in Central America and the Caribbean maintain long-, medium- and short-term seed stores, field genebanks and in vitro genebanks. In the subregion, only Cuba reported activities on germplasm cryopreservation. As elsewhere, fewer accessions tend to be stored in field than seed genebanks: Cuba, for example reported having 4 000 accessions in the field compared with more than 12 000 seed accessions, and Mexico has approximately 61 000 field accessions and 107 000 seed accessions, although only half of these are in cold storage. However, roughly equal proportions of field and seed accessions are maintained in Costa Rica and El Salvador, while the Dominican Republic conserves about four times more material in the field than in its seed genebank. Most countries reported having ten or fewer genebanks, while Mexico reported having about 150 genebanks, 22 of these having cold storage facilities but only three meeting international standards for long-term conservation. As elsewhere in the developing world, many countries reported difficulties in maintaining international genebank standards for the same reasons, indicated by others. However, Cuba and Dominica also reported problems created by extreme weather events. In North America, both Canada and the United States of America operate long- and medium-term conservation genebanks, including cryopreservation facilities. Europe According to country reports, most European states have long-, medium- and short-term seed storage facilities as well as field genebanks. Belgium, Germany, Poland and the Russian Federation maintain cryopreservation facilities and virtually all countries conserve some germplasm in vitro. Hungary and Italy both reported having more than 60 separate storage facilities, but most countries have fewer than 20. However, the relative importance of the different types of storage varies considerably. Italy, for example, conserves more germplasm in the field 73

CHAPTER 3 than in seed genebanks and Germany reported having more than 155 000 accessions in genebanks (seed and field collections), of which 3 200 in vitro. Belgium too, reported substantial numbers of in vitro accessions (more than 1 500), largely as a result of the international collection of banana germplasm maintained in Leuven. In all cases, international standards were met and few problems were encountered, e.g. Albania reported a limitation of financial resources and skilled staff and The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia was hampered by the lack of a national strategy. Near East In 2004, the National Genebank of Egypt became operational with a storage capacity for 200 000 accessions (15 percent of capacity was being used by the end of 2006) as well as facilities for in vitro conservation and cryopreservation. New long-term storage facilities have also been established in Morocco (2002) and Tunisia (2007). Tajikistan stated its reliance on donor funds to maintain storage facilities in good order and Uzbekistan indicated that it is modernizing its facilities. Most of the remaining countries conserve their genetic resources under ambient or mediumterm conservation conditions (5-10°C with no relative humidity control). While several countries in this region have no genebank some, including Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have made plans for the establishment of long-term storage facilities to serve national and regional needs. A number of countries reported problems relating to funding, staffing and reliability of utilities. International Agricultural Research Centre Genebanks Since the publication of the first SoW report there has been considerable upgrading of storage facilities among the IARCs. In 1996, the Government of Japan funded a new genebank at CIMMYT. More recently, the World Bank supported two projects to upgrade the standards of all the CGIAR genebanks. Through these projects, CIAT received a grant to convert cold rooms into a low temperature seed vault; ILRI has recently 74 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA installed new humidifiers and a new irrigation system for its field genebank and in 2007, IRRI built a new long-term seed store and enlarged its screenhouse complex. The projects also funded the renovation of IITA’s facilities, where there are now improved cold storage chambers, drying rooms, in vitro laboratories and a store for yams. WARDA built a new cold room, screenhouses, a drying room and laboratories in Cotonou, Benin. 3.6 Security of stored material Many of the world’s collections of PGR are maintained under suboptimal conditions that have a negative impact on the viability of the collections. Two main areas of concern are the extent of safety duplication and backlogs with respect to regeneration. Both were also identified as significant constraints in the first SoW report. Although a substantial number of the world’s collections are partly or entirely duplicated in more than one genebank, current data and information often do not allow identification of the same accession in different genebanks and the clear distinction between safety and redundant duplicates. In this respect, there has been little change since the publication of the first SoW report. Analyses based on country of origin suggest that only about 25-30 percent of the total number of accessions worldwide are distinct, in line with the first SoW report, but there are large differences according to species. A preliminary estimate of the duplication for selected crops based on WIEWS data indicates that for barley about 120 000 distinct accessions are stored worldwide compared with a total of 467 000 accessions. This figure is in line with a separate study undertaken by the GCDT on the process of developing the Barley Crop Strategy. 16 Considerable safety duplication exists among the four largest barley collections; those of PGRC, USDA, Embrapa and ICARDA. There is a large overlap between the Canadian and USDA collections following safety duplication of the USDA collection of oats and barley in Canada in 1989 and the Brazilian collection is mostly integrated into that of USDA. The ICARDA collection is to be duplicated in the SGSV as a second

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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