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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF EX SITU

THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION level of safety, as are many other CGIAR collections; 33 percent of this collection is already duplicated at CIMMYT and 65 percent is duplicated elsewhere. Many other barley collections are partly or wholly safety duplicated, but those of Bulgaria, Ecuador, France, Hungary and Italy, for example, are not. The duplication of accessions among collections, whether planned or unplanned, may result in large numbers of common accessions among different genebanks which, in turn, may be duplicated again as part of the planned safety duplication of entire collections. Whether duplication tends to occur primarily through a small number of samples being duplicated many times, or through a larger number of samples being duplicated only a few times, has yet to be determined for any crop. Many wheat and maize germplasm collections are partially or wholly safety duplicated. According to a preliminary analysis, the lowest level of duplication is associated with vegetatively propagated and recalcitrant seeded plants, including cassava, yam and taro, cashew and rubber. Inadequate duplication also occurs for Chenopodium, Eragrostis, Psophocarpus and bambara groundnut, all of which are of high importance in local areas. CWR, neglected and underused crops and newly domesticated crops also appear more vulnerable in terms of lack of safety duplication. Banana germplasm is largely safety duplicated in vitro, but the situation for potato remains uncertain. For other crops, including lentil and chickpea, the degree of safety duplication is not well documented. The CGRFA invited countries to report on risks and threats to ex situ genetic resources in their national collections, as part of an international Early Warning System. In the late 1990s, the Russian Federation alerted the CGRFA about the difficulties the Vavilov Institute was facing at that time. Since the publication of the first SoW report, a major step forward in ensuring the safety of collections has been the establishment of the GCDT, 17 described elsewhere in this report (see Section 6.5). The GCDT funds operations at the SGSV and supports long-term storage in a small but growing number of genebanks. The following sections summarize the germplasm security status of collections in the different regions. Africa Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Mali and the Niger reported the safety duplication of some of their germplasm in genebanks of the CGIAR countries. Ghana and Namibia both indicated that the majority of their germplasm was duplicated within the country. The regional SADC genebank provides safety duplication for all member country collections under long-term storage conditions. Uganda had not yet embarked on a programme of safety duplication, but Kenya reported having deposited safety duplicates of some of its germplasm in the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew. Americas In South America, Argentina reported safety duplicating its germplasm at CIP, CIMMYT, CIAT, IITA and the NCGRP of USDA. Chile reported similarly, but other countries provided no information. Very little information was provided in most of the country reports from Central America and the Caribbean, but Cuba and Mexico have undertaken a small amount of safety duplication. Asia and the Pacific As with Africa and the Americas, most of the Asia and the Pacific country reports provided little information on duplication, but major germplasm holding nations, including China and India, reported safety duplicating all accessions in-country. Rice growing nations such as Indonesia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Malaysia, all reported that IRRI maintains safety duplicates of their rice collections. Other IARCs hold safety duplicates of crops from other countries. For example, Indonesia has deposited safety duplicates of banana germplasm at the International Transit Centre in Leuven, Belgium. The CePaCT maintains safety duplicates of the national vegetatively propagated crop collections from the Pacific islands. Europe Most European countries indicated that their germplasm collections were safety duplicated to some extent, 75

CHAPTER 3 usually within their own national systems. The Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, all reported having secured their accessions through depositing duplicate samples in Denmark as well as SGSV. Other countries, including Romania, reported not having safety duplicated their collections and the Russian Federation offered to make available facilities for safety duplication to other countries. Near East Kazakhstan reported storing safety duplicates at VIR and IRRI and other countries in the region, including the Islamic Republic of Iran, Turkey and Uzbekistan, reported having safety duplicated at least some germplasm in-country. Most of the cereal, legume and range species collected from the region are duplicated at ICARDA. Pakistan reported having safety duplicates of crop germplasm collections at ICARDA, IRRI and AVRDC. 3.7 Regeneration As aging of conserved accessions occurs even under optimal ex situ storage conditions, periodical monitoring of the viability and timely regeneration of materials are an essential, though often neglected, part of ex situ conservation. Limited financial resources, infrastructure and human capacity still represent the main constraints to regeneration, as was reported in the first SoW report. The need for skilled staff is especially great in the case of difficult and poorly researched species, such as many of the CWR. The crop and regional conservation strategies supported by the GCDT have highlighted the fact that regeneration backlogs occur in all types of conserved germplasm and in all regions. 18 According to information from NISM databases, 19 since 1996, capacity has worsened in 20 percent of the surveyed genebanks, regeneration backlogs have persisted in 37 percent of them and in 18 percent they have increased. Recently, regeneration and documentation updating efforts have been supported by the GCDT in over 70 countries for about 90 000 accessions in collections identified by crop experts as being of highest priority. 76 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA Africa Regular viability testing was carried out in Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia, but generally not elsewhere. The systematic regeneration of stored material appears sporadic, although Ethiopia reported regular regeneration of germplasm when viability fell below 85 percent. Funding, staffing and facilities were frequently reported to be inadequate to allow the necessary germplasm regeneration to be undertaken. Ongoing regeneration backlogs have been reported for the fonio and sorghum national collections in Mali, as well as for cereal and vegetable collections held at the Institut sénégalais de recherche agricole – Unité de recherche comune en culture in vitro (ISRA- URCI) in Senegal and at the Institute of Biodiversity Conservation (IBC) in Ethiopia. The national genebank of the United Republic of Tanzania also warned about a decreasing capacity to manage regeneration that has resulted in growing backlogs for both cross- and selfpollinated crop collections. Americas Viability testing in Argentina has not been carried out as regularly as desired, but a considerable amount of regeneration has been done since the first SoW report was published. The Plurinational State of Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela also reported having carried out viability testing and regeneration, but many problems were reported including lack of finance, staff and equipment. Ongoing backlogs were reported for vegetatively propagated species inter alia by INIA Carillanca (Chile), INIAP/Departamento Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos y Biotecnología Instituto Nacional Autonomo de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (DENAREF, Ecuador), INIA-Maracay the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical “Alejandro de Humboldt” (INIFAT) and the Centro de Bioplantas (Cuba). Important field collections such as the coffee collection held at CATIE are also in need of regeneration and in Brazil, regular seed regeneration is still recognized as a bottleneck for many active collections especially of cross-pollinated species.

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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