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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF EX SITU

THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION Asia and the Pacific Many of the Asian country reports provided little information on regeneration. While many countries practiced regeneration, they frequently faced difficulties due to lack of funds and facilities. Viet Nam reported the loss of entire collections. Some countries, including Sri Lanka and the Philippines, were able to carry out regular viability testing of stored germplasm, but this was not always possible in other countries. Regeneration backlogs for vegetatively propagated crops were reported inter alia by PGRC (Sri Lanka), Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, SKUAST (India) and the Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture (CITH, India), the Field Crops Research Institute - Department of Agriculture (FCRI-DA, Thailand) and the Lam Dong Agricultural Research and Experiment Centre (LAREC, Viet Nam). Regarding cross-pollinated species regeneration backlogs were reported by the Directorate of Oilseeds Research (DOR, India) and the Philippine Coconut Authority-Zamboanga Research Center (PCA- ZRC) (the Philippines). China reported regeneration activities that addressed more than 286 000 accessions and New Zealand reported the systematic regeneration of all crop germplasm, including fruits. Europe While viability testing was carried out regularly in most countries, the country reports contained few details on this. There were differences among countries regarding the level to which viability was allowed to fall before regeneration was considered necessary. Iceland, Norway and Sweden specified 60 percent, while the Russian Federation used a value of 50 percent and Poland a value between 80 and 85 percent. In general, there were no major problems reported by European countries regarding regeneration, although Finland indicated that in some cases small amounts of seeds made regeneration difficult. Notwithstanding an overall increase in capacity to perform regeneration, Armenia reported urgent regeneration needs and growing backlogs for its cereal and vegetatively propagated collections. Near East Uzbekistan reported some loss of accessions arising from reduced viability. Many countries have faced difficulties in ensuring that the genetic integrity of cross-pollinated species is maintained during regeneration. Cyprus, Egypt, the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan reported having regenerated more than 50 percent of the accessions stored in their national genebanks. The main genebanks in Kazakhstan, Morocco and Uzbekistan have undertaken substantial regeneration while the other genebanks in these countries have only carried out regeneration to a more limited extent. There is a need to regenerate the entire wheat collections held in the national genebanks of Azerbaijan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan. 20 3.8 Documentation and characterization 3.8.1 Documentation The first SoW report highlighted the poor documentation available on much of the world’s ex situ PGR. This problem continues to be a substantial obstacle to the increased use of PGRFA in crop improvement and research. Where documentation and characterization data do exist, there are frequent problems in standardization and accessibility, even for basic passport information. Nonetheless, there has been an overall improvement in the accessibility of information. A number of national genebanks have published collection data on the web or are in the process of doing so, often with the facility of being able to order materials on-line. However, a significant imbalance exists among regions and countries within regions. The large majority of countries still do not maintain an integrated national information system on germplasm holdings. According to the country reports and NISM data, important ex situ holdings in at least 38 countries are still, at least partly, documented only on paper (16 countries) and/or in spreadsheets (32 countries). 21 Dedicated information management systems are used to manage passport 77

CHAPTER 3 and characterization data on ex situ collections in only 60 percent of the countries that provided information on this topic, while generic database software is used in about 34 percent of countries. The lack of a freely available, flexible, up-to-date, user-friendly, multilanguage system has constrained documentation improvement in many countries, although in some cases, regional and/or bilateral collaboration has helped to meet information management needs through the sharing of experiences and tools. Almost all the CGIAR centres have developed their own documentation systems that, in most cases, include characterization data as well as an on-line ordering system. They contribute data to the SINGER, which holds passport, collecting mission and distribution data on CGIAR and AVRDC collections. 22 The crop strategies sponsored by the GCDT contain information which is relevant to the state of documentation and characterization on a crop basis. For wheat, most developed and developing countries have computerized management systems and many provide web-based access to passport information as well as characterization data. However, the major problem is the lack of standardization among systems. A similar problem exists for maize, in that there are passport data for most accessions in most collections, but there is little uniformity in its management. Tracing materials through donor collection identifiers is generally quite difficult in web-accessible information systems. For barley, some characterization information is available on the web, but there is a lack of electronically available evaluation data. Electronic documentation of potato accessions world-wide is only partially complete and few genebanks are able to provide characterization and evaluation data through their own web sites. For sweet potato a similar situation exists and inadequate documentation and characterization information is available, particularly in Africa. For banana, however, the research community is well served regarding information and there is an effective information network managed through INIBAP. The Musa Information System contains information on more than 5 000 accessions managed in 18 of the approximately 60 collections. A similar information system has been 78 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA put in place for rice by IRRI. For pulses, a considerable amount of evaluation and documentation still remains to be recorded and standardized; electronic global information systems are needed for most collections. The following sections describe the status of documentation in the various regions, based mainly on information contained in the country reports. Africa Most African nations reported having characterization and evaluation data on their collections, but with some exceptions (e.g. most SADC countries, Ethiopia, Kenya and Mali), it was generally incomplete and not standardized. Togo indicated that its documentation was in a rudimentary state and several other countries reported serious weaknesses. Kenya reported its intention to develop national documentation systems that are in line with the SADC Documentation and Information System (SDIS) system in use in all SADC countries. While three countries reported that they still maintained some records on paper and eight use spreadsheets, at least eight others have dedicated electronic systems. 23 Ghana, Kenya and Togo reported using generic databases to manage information on ex situ collections. Americas A significant amount of information is publicly available on the ex situ holdings in North America. Passport information is freely accessible through the web-based GRIN 24 on more than half a million accessions of about 13 000 species stored in 31 NPGS genebanks belonging to the USDA. In addition, more than 6.5 million observations are available on various morphological and agronomic traits for 380 000 accessions. The Canadian GRIN-CA has also adopted this information system. 25 Country reports from South America indicate that documentation and characterization systems are working relatively well and that electronic databases containing comprehensive data on germplasm accessions are commonly used. Chile, Paraguay and Peru, however, reported that paper systems are still in use for some collections and no data from national

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    The designations employed and the p

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    CHAPTER 5 of Bolivia, for example,

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    CHAPTER 5 In some countries includi

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    CHAPTER 5 Africa, Burkina Faso, Cam

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    CHAPTER 5 Box 5.2 India’s Protect

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    CHAPTER 5 the adoption of national

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    138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http

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    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

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    CHAPTER 6 a) those that focus on co

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 • the Regional Cooperat

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    CHAPTER 6 and African countries for

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    CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR Syst

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    CHAPTER 6 • ICBA: 64 ICBA was est

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    CHAPTER 7 has been adapted to incor

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    CHAPTER 7 changes after the initial

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    CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far

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    178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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