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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF EX SITU

THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION programmes in the region are accessible via the web. Passport data were generally reported to be available for large numbers of accessions. The Sistema para la Documentación de Recursos Genéticos Vegetales (DBGERMO), developed by INTA, Argentina, is a dedicated germplasm data management system that is popular in the region and is being used in Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Uruguay and by CATIE in Costa Rica. Paraguay expressed the need for DBGERMO to be adopted at a regional level in order to harmonize data collection and retrieval. The Sistema brasileiro de informação de recursos genéticos (SIBRAGEN) is the documentation and dissemination system in use by Embrapa in Brazil. GIS are reportedly used in Argentina and Ecuador for the geographical analysis of collected materials. In their country reports, most countries in Central America and the Caribbean indicated that while documentation of germplasm holdings existed, it was often not standardized. Little information on the availability of passport data was provided in the country reports. The use of dedicated genebank documentation systems and databases are relatively rare in this region. They are reportedly in use only in Cuba, Mexico and Trinidad and Tobago and by the genebank at CATIE in Costa Rica. Some genebanks in Mexico still use paper records in addition to electronic filing and in more than 40 percent of the reporting countries spreadsheets are the most common tool for data management. Asia and the Pacific In their country reports, all Asian countries indicated that at least some documentation existed on their germplasm holdings. Passport data were generally available across the region, for the large majority of accessions. About 75 percent of the reporting countries make use of a dedicated information system for the management of ex situ germplasm, although in four countries some data have not been put in electronic format yet. China reported having a web-based database, but only in Chinese. Sri Lanka reported the use of GIS and together with Bangladesh, Thailand and Viet Nam recognized the need for a nationwide ex situ germplasm information system. Significant advances in making information on ex situ holdings publicly available were reported by Japan and the Republic of Korea, including passport and characterization data on more than 87 000 accessions held at the National Institute of Aerobiological Sciences in Japan 26 and passport data on about 20 000 accessions at the National Agrobiodiversity Centre in the Republic of Korea. 27 Country reports from the Pacific suggested that relatively little comprehensive documentation work has been done in this region. Fiji, New Zealand, Palau, Papua New Guinea and Samoa all reported that documentation existed, but did not generally follow standard formats. Some information was available in electronic databases, and the Cook Islands, for example, stated that the development of a database was a national priority. Efforts to increase the availability of data on ex situ collections have been undertaken by Australia and New Zealand through web-based systems. The Australian Plant Genetic Resource Information Service (AusPGRIS) 28 at present includes passport data on about 40 000 accessions from 229 genera stored at Biloela of the Queensland Department of Primary Industries (QUPI), the web sites of the Margot Forde Forage Germplasm Centre 29 and the Arable crop genebank and online database. 30 Europe The state of documentation is generally good across Europe, according to the country reports. A variety of tools are used for data storage and management, among which spreadsheets and generic databases are the most common. Standardized passport data from 38 countries have been published by the European Internet Search Catalogue (EURISCO), 31 a centralized web-based catalogue that has been managed by Bioversity International since 2003 under the ECPGR. The network has also supported the establishment and maintenance of European Central Crop Databases that compile and disseminate characterization and evaluation data on several crops. The Nordic countries have standardized their approach to documentation and characterization and provide information through NordGen using the Sesto system. 32 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia reported that it was 79

CHAPTER 3 ready to adopt the same information system. Croatia reported that it still had not compiled characterization data, although passport data were recorded for most accessions. Near East Good progress has been made since 1996 on documenting accessions held in the main genebanks. Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Turkey all reported that their germplasm information is now fully maintained in a dedicated system supported technically by ICARDA and Bioversity International. Significant progress has also been made in Azerbaijan with the inclusion of passport data from the national genebank in EURISCO and the recording of characterization and evaluation data electronically for more than 60 percent of the ex situ cereal accessions and 50 percent of the fruit and fibre accessions. 33 Passport data for some accessions from Cyprus are also recorded in EURISCO. Other countries, including Kazakhstan and Lebanon, reported that documentation was not systematic or standardized, although Lebanon reported that evaluation data for vegetables are available via the Horticulture Cultivars Performance Database (HORTIVAR). 34 Iraq and Kazakhstan reported using crop registers in 80 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA paper format and Tajikistan reported that a joint computerized system was being developed with Kyrgyzstan. Egypt maintains documentation on all germplasm accessions and has substantial amounts of data on morphological and molecular characteristics as well as on agronomically important traits. 3.8.2 Characterization In 1996 the GPA highlighted the importance of characterization both as a way to help link the conservation of PGRFA with its use, and to facilitate the identification of gaps in collections and the development of core collections. Since then, in spite of the considerable work on characterization reported by many genebanks and associated programmes, often involving regional and international collaboration (see Chapter 6), overall, the information produced has been underused due largely to a lack of standardization and to accessibility constraints. Many country reports indicated that the lack of readily available characterization and evaluation data is a major limitation to the greater use of PGRFA in breeding programmes. An indication of the level of characterization of the collections held by international centres is reported in Table 3.6 TABLE 3.6 Extent of characterization for some of the collections held by CGIAR centres and AVRDC Crop groups % of accessions characterized Total number of accessions Cereals 35 88 292 990 6 Food legumes 78 142 730 4 Vegetables 17 54 277 1 Fruits (banana) 44 883 2 Forages 45 69 788 3 Roots and tubers 68 25 515 3 Total 73 586 193 11 Source: CGIAR System-wide genetic resources programme (SGRP) 2008 Reporting centres

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    The designations employed and the p

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    CHAPTER 5 In some countries includi

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    CHAPTER 5 Africa, Burkina Faso, Cam

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    CHAPTER 5 Box 5.2 India’s Protect

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    CHAPTER 5 the adoption of national

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    138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http

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    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

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    CHAPTER 6 a) those that focus on co

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 • the Regional Cooperat

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    CHAPTER 6 and African countries for

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    CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR Syst

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    CHAPTER 6 • ICBA: 64 ICBA was est

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    CHAPTER 7 has been adapted to incor

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    CHAPTER 7 changes after the initial

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    CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far

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    178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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