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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF EX SITU

THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION Czech Republic reported relatively comprehensive data on morphological and agronomically important traits including abiotic and biotic stresses, on its collections of fruit trees, wheat, barley, peas and soybean. In Romania, about 20 percent of the total holdings in the national genebank have been phenotypically characterized and biochemically evaluated. Albania reported on its extensive use of morphological and agronomic descriptors but indicated that, with few exceptions, the characterization data are not readily accessible. Near East The characterization and evaluation of genetic resources using standard descriptors have advanced in almost all countries of the region since the publication of the first SoW report. Characterization has been carried out on a wide range of species for morphological traits of agronomic importance, quality attributes and for tolerance and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Several countries, for example, Egypt, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia and Turkey also reported that they had undertaken molecular characterization, largely through academic studies. Molecular characterization of date palm has been carried out in Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. 3.9 Germplasm movement Information on germplasm movement provides a valuable indicator of the use of PGR (see Chapter 4). However, such information is often not recorded and only limited data were provided in the country reports. However, there is now more information available on this issue than was the case at the time when the first SoW report was published. Genebanks play a central role in the movement of germplasm within and among countries. Germplasm movement includes exchange among genebanks, sometimes as part of repatriation agreements, material collected in field collecting missions, acquisitions by genebanks from research and breeding programmes and distribution to plant breeders, researchers and directly to farmers. While some information on total numbers of samples moved is available, this is often not broken down into the different crops or types of germplasm concerned, or the nature of the recipient or providing institution. More detailed information on these factors would enable better understanding of patterns of use. Figure 4.1 in Chapter 4 provides an indirect estimate of one aspect of germplasm exchange; sources of germplasm for use in plant breeding programmes. The ability of a potential recipient to access a particular accession is often limited by the size of a stored sample and its phytosanitary status (see Chapter 7). Furthermore, inadequate information systems often make it difficult to access the same accession from an alternative source. Comprehensive data on germplasm acquisition and distribution are readily available only for the genebanks of the IARCs. Over the past 12 years, the CGIAR centres and AVRDC have distributed more than 1.1 million samples, 615 000 of which, (about 50 000 per year), went to external recipients. In general, total distribution has remained steady over the period from 1996 to 2007 at about 100 000 accessions each year, although it peaked in 2004. These figures are similar to those reported in the first SOW report for the period 1993 to 1995. In terms of the types of germplasm distributed by the IARCs, Figure 3.7 shows that the largest proportion are landraces, followed by wild species and breeding lines. Figure 3.8 shows the distribution of germplasm by the IARCs to different types of recipient organizations. Nearly half the germplasm was distributed within or between the centres themselves and 30 percent went to developing country NARS. Developed country NARS received 15 percent and the private sector 3 percent. Breeding materials and advanced cultivars went mainly to NARS in developing countries, whereas developed country NARS requested mainly landraces. Wild species were requested equally by most types of organizations. The following sections describe the status of germplasm movement on a regional basis, based on information contained in the country reports. 83

84 CHAPTER 3 FIGURE 3.7 Distribution of germplasm held by the IARCs by type of germplasm (1996-2007) Other Advanced cultivars 6% 1% Breeding lines Wild Species Source: CGIAR, SGRP 2008 FIGURE 3.8 Distribution of germplasm from the IARCs to different types of recipient organization between 1996 and 2007 NARs (developed countries) NARs (developing countries) 15% Private Sector Source: CGIAR, SGRP 2008 27% 15% 50% Others (CBOs, NGOs, etc.) 4% 3% 30% 48% Landacres IARCs THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA Africa Little data on germplasm movement was provided in the country reports from Africa. Uganda indicated that there was no national monitoring system for germplasm movement in place and Mali reported that germplasm movement was poorly documented. Both Ghana and Guinea stated that there was considerable movement, but no figures were available. A significant increase in germplasm movement since 1996 was reported by Malawi, which distributed more than 1 000 accessions and Kenya which distributed 3 189 accessions over a five year period. In its country report, Ethiopia estimated that an average of 5 000 samples were distributed annually to national programmes. Asia and the Pacific Little detailed information on germplasm movement was also reported from Asia, however, China has distributed 212 000 accessions since 1998, 95 percent of which, were within the country. India has distributed more than 164 000 accessions over the past ten years, while Pakistan has supplied some 13 000 samples to national institutions and more than 5 000 to international organizations since 1996. Japan distributed more than 36 000 samples in-country and about 1 300 abroad over the period 2003-2007. Europe The extent of germplasm movement in Europe and the availability of associated data varied considerably among countries. While Romania reported little movement of germplasm, Germany reported that since 1952, IPK had distributed about 710 000 samples to various users with, for example, more than 13 000 samples being distributed in 2006 alone. Between 1985 and 2003, 140 000 samples were requested from the Federal Centre of Breeding Research on Cultivated Plants (Braunschweig, Germany) (BAZ) genebank in Braunschweig. Poland distributed between 5 000 and 10 000 samples annually between 1996 and 2007 and Switzerland distributed an annual average of 270 samples nationally and internationally.

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    The designations employed and the p

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    CHAPTER 5 Box 5.2 India’s Protect

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    CHAPTER 5 the adoption of national

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    138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http

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    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

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    CHAPTER 6 a) those that focus on co

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 • the Regional Cooperat

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    CHAPTER 6 and African countries for

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    CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR Syst

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    CHAPTER 6 • ICBA: 64 ICBA was est

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    CHAPTER 7 has been adapted to incor

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    CHAPTER 7 changes after the initial

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    CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far

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    178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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