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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF EX SITU

THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION Near East Jordan reported that most germplasm movement occurred among farmers, a situation that is also likely to occur in many other countries of this region and elsewhere. However, it is difficult to assess the importance of farmer-farmer exchanges in relation to the overall distribution of genetic diversity nationally, regionally and internationally. Cyprus indicated that there was little public awareness of the existence of its genebank and hence few requests for germplasm – a problem that likely has occured in other countries too. There was otherwise little information from this region. 3.10 Botanical gardens There are over 2 500 botanical gardens worldwide that together grow over 80 000 plant species (approximately one-third of all known plant species). 40 As well as their living collections, botanical gardens often have herbaria and carpological collections and an increasing number have seed banks and in vitro collections. In general, botanical gardens focus on conserving the interspecific diversity of flora and thus, tend to maintain a large number of species with relatively few accessions for each species. Over the last ten years, the number of botanical gardens recorded in Botanic Gardens Conservation International’s global database increased from 1 500 to more than 2 500, 41 at least partly reflecting the current interest in establishing new botanical gardens in many parts of the world. In its country report, China indicated that it had 170 botanical gardens and India reported 150. The Russian Federation reported that it had about 75 botanical gardens, Germany 95, Italy 102, Mexico 30 and Indonesia 12. Most other countries, however, reported having less than ten. Botanical gardens often maintain very substantial germplasm holdings although only a percentage of these are important for food and agriculture. The German botanical gardens together conserve about 300 000 accessions of 50 000 taxa. Botanical gardens are diverse institutions; many are associated with universities and focus on research and teaching (as mentioned in 19 country reports), while others may be governmental, municipal or private. Throughout their history, botanical gardens have been concerned with cultivating plants of importance to humankind for medicinal, economic and ornamental purposes. In recent years, the focus of many gardens is turning to the conservation of species found in the native wild flora (as mentioned in 19 country reports), especially those under threat of extinction. Many of these species are either of direct socio-economic or cultural importance to local communities or in some cases are CWR; both are groups that tend to be less well represented in traditional collections of PGRFA. The GSPC, 42 adopted by the CBD in 2002, includes some measurable targets for conserving plants. Botanical gardens played a key role in developing the strategy and are expected to be important contributors to its implementation. Other international organizations, including Bioversity International, FAO and IUCN, have also been identified as lead international partners for specific targets, with a role in supporting country implementation of the Strategy. In some countries, stakeholder consultations held to develop national responses to GSPC have been successful in bringing the botanical garden and environmental sectors together with the agricultural sector, forging closer linkages on the conservation of PGRFA. However, in many countries cross-sectoral linkages remain poorly developed and botanical gardens are not generally included in national PGR programmes or networks. Despite this, botanical gardens are mentioned as being involved in plant conservation by 98 countries and the country reports of Kenya, Uganda and Zambia specifically note that botanical gardens are included in their national PGR networks. 3.10.1 Conservation facilities, statistics and examples The majority of botanical gardens are located in Europe (36 percent) and the Americas (34 percent) with 23.5 percent in Asia and the Pacific and only 5.5 percent in Africa. Worldwide, over 800 botanical gardens specifically focus on conservation and their ex situ collections include a wide range of socioeconomically important species. CWR are well 85

CHAPTER 3 TABLE 3.8 Botanical garden collections of selected crops listed in Annex 1 of the ITPGRFA 44 Crop Genus Number of species recorded in plant search Breadfruit Artocarpus 107 Asparagus Asparagus 86 Brassica 13 genera 122 Chickpea Cicer 16 Citrus Citrus 18 Yams Dioscorea 60 Strawberry Fragaria 16 Sunflower Helianthus 36 Sweet potato Ipomoea 85 Grass pea Lathyrus 82 Apple Malus 62 Pearl millet Pennisetum 23 Potato Solanum tuberosum 190 Sorghum Sorghum 15 Wheat represented in botanical garden collections with, for example, over 2 000 CWR taxa in botanical gardens in Europe. Further details on CWR in botanical garden collections are provided in Table 3.8. Similarly, some 1 800 medicinal plant taxa are represented in botanical garden collections globally. 43 Ex situ conservation in botanical gardens tends to focus on living collections and in this regard they can play a useful role in the conservation of vegetatively propagated species, those with recalcitrant seeds and tree species. In Poland’s country report, for example, specific mention is made of the conservation of apple germplasm by a botanical garden. However, seed conservation is important for some botanical 86 Triticum aestivum Agropyron Elymus Faba bean/vetch Vicia 77 Cowpea et al. Vigna 12 36 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA gardens and at least 160 gardens around the world have seed banks. The Millennium Seed Bank Project (MBSP) of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, is the largest and together with its partners around the world, aims to conserve seed of 24 200 species by 2010, with particular focus on dryland species. China’s largest seed bank, the Germplasm Bank of Wild Species (GBWS), is located at the Botanical Garden of the Kunming Institute of Botany. In Europe, the European Native Seed Conservation Network (ENSCONET) brings together the seed conservation activities of over twenty European botanical gardens and other institutes. Through this network, seeds of nearly 40 000 accessions of more than 9 000 native European plant taxa are conserved. 45 3.10.2 Documentation and germplasm exchange The global PlantSearch database maintained by BGCI includes some 575 000 records on around 180 000 taxa 46 which are in cultivation in about 700 botanical gardens worldwide. However, this information consists of species names only and does not include descriptive information or the country of origin of accessions. At the national level, some countries have developed national databases of plants in cultivation in botanical gardens that provide more detailed accession-level information. These include PlantCol in Belgium, 47 SysTax in Germany, 48 and the Dutch National Plants Collection. 49 In the United States of America, the Plant Collections Consortium aims to bring together information on collections in 16 United States of America institutions and 4 international institutions. 50 In the the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland, the Electronic Plant Information Centre (ePIC) developed by the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, provides a single point of search across all Kew’s major specimen, bibliographic and taxonomic databases. Kew’s Seed Information Database is included in ePIC, which is an ongoing compilation of species’ seed characteristics and traits, both from the MSBP’s own collections and from the published and unpublished data of many seed biologists worldwide. 51 One of the main international mechanisms for the exchange of germplasm between botanical gardens is

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

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    CHAPTER 6 a) those that focus on co

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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