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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF EX SITU

THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION the germplasm catalogue, the Index seminum. While still popular in Europe, concerns over the potential spread of invasive species have limited the use of the Index seminum in the United States of America. In Europe, the International Plant Exchange Network (IPEN) was developed as a response to the ABS provisions of the CBD, to facilitate the exchange of germplasm for non-commercial use. 52 3.11 Changes since the first State of the World report was published While significant advances have been made over the period since the first SoW report was published, in almost all areas further work is needed. Major changes include: • more than 1.4 million germplasm accessions have been added to ex situ collections, bringing the total number now conserved worldwide to about 7.4 million. The majority of these are maintained in seed genebanks; • more than 240 000 new accessions have been collected and are now being conserved ex situ. This number, however, is believed to be a considerable underestimate in that many countries did not provide figures on the number of accessions collected; • fewer countries account for 45 percent of the total world ex situ germplasm holdings than was the case in 1996; • interest in collecting and maintaining collections of CWR is growing as land-use systems change, concerns about the effects of climate change grow and techniques for using the material become more powerful and more readily available; • interest is also growing in neglected and underutilized crops in recognition of their potential to produce high-value niche products and as novel crops for the new environmental conditions that are expected to result from climate change; • significant advances have been made in regeneration: at the international level, largely as a result of funding provided to the CGIAR centres for the ‘Global Public Goods’ project, and at the national level, in part as a result of funding by the GCDT. However, much more remains to be done; • documentation and characterization data on collections have progressed somewhat, although there are still large data gaps and much of the existing data is not accessible electronically; • the number of botanical gardens around the world now exceeds 2 500, maintaining samples of some 80 000 plant species, including CWR. Botanical gardens took the lead in developing the GSPC adopted by the CBD in 2002; • the GCDT, founded in 2004, represents a major step forward in underpinning the world’s ability to secure PGRFA in the long term; • with the establishment of the highly innovative SGSV, a last resort safety back-up repository is now freely available to the world community for the long-term storage of duplicate seed samples. 3.12 Gaps and needs The overall needs of ex situ conservation remain largely the same as those listed in the first SoW report. This does not suggest that good progress has not been made, but that progress has not been complete and that many of the most important constraints can only be addressed through long-term commitments and action. Continuing gaps and needs include: • many countries, although aware of the importance of collecting, conserving, regenerating, characterizing, documenting and distributing PGR, do not have adequate human capacity, funds or facilities to carry out the necessary work to the required standards. Many valuable collections are in jeopardy as their storage and management are suboptimal; • greater efforts are needed to build a truly rational global system of ex situ collections. This requires, in particular, strengthened regional and international trust and cooperation; • while there are still high levels of duplication globally for a number of crops, especially major crops, much of this is unintended and many crops and important collections remain inadequately safety duplicated. The situation is most serious for 87

88 CHAPTER 3 vegetatively propagated species and species with recalcitrant seeds; • in spite of significant advances in the regeneration of collections, many countries still lack the resources needed to maintain adequate levels of viability; • for several major crops, such as wheat and rice, a large part of the genetic diversity is now represented in collections. However, for many other crops, especially many neglected and underutilized species and CWR, comprehensive collections still do not exist and considerable gaps remain to be filled; • in order to improve the management of collections and encourage an increased use of germplasm, documentation, characterization and evaluation, need to be strengthened and harmonized and the data need to be made more accessible. Greater standardization of data and information management systems is needed; • in situ and ex situ conservation strategies need to be better linked to ensure that a maximum amount of genetic diversity is conserved in the most appropriate way and that biological and cultural information is not lost inadvertently; • greater efforts are needed to promote the use of the genetic resources maintained in collections. Stronger links are needed between the managers of collections and those whose primary interest lies in using the resources, especially for plant breeding; • in the effort to mobilize additional resources for ex situ conservation, greater efforts are needed to raise awareness among policy-makers and the general public, of the importance of PGRFA and the need to safeguard it. References 1 Available at: http://apps3.fao.org/wiews 2 Country reports: Brazil, China, India, Japan, Mexico, Russian Federation and the United States of America. THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA 3 More than 40 countries that reported having undertaken collecting missions since 1996 did not provide figures on the number of accessions collected. 4 Collecting of duplicate samples derived from joint missions are included. 5 Excluding specialized genebanks only holding genetic stocks of plants that are not for food and agriculture. 6 Country grouping by region and subregion as per Appendix 1 of the first State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. 7 Spooner, D.M. & William, K.A. 2004. Germplasm acquisition. Encyclopedia of Plant and Crop Science. New York, Marcel Dekker Inc. 8 Crop Strategy Documents. For details see: http:// www.croptrust.org/main/strategy.php 9 NCPGR holds the USDA base collection, including 76 percent of the duplicate material under the NPGS. 10 Country reports: Argentina, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Uruguay and Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of). 11 Including wild forms of the same species as the domesticate, wild species related to the domesticate, and weedy/semi-wild or minimally cultivated species that comprise part of the crop genepool. 12 Op cit. Endnote 8 13 de Vicente, C. & Andersson, M.S. (Eds.) 2006. DNA banks - providing novel options for genebanks? Bioversity International (formerly IPGRI), Rome. Available at: http://books.google.com/ books?id=B8Of_ QoxRXEC 14 Engelmann, F. 2004. Genetic Resource Conservation of Seeds. Encyclopedia of Plant and Crop Science. New York, Marcel Dekker Inc.

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

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    138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http

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    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

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    CHAPTER 6 a) those that focus on co

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 and African countries for

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    CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR Syst

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    CHAPTER 6 • ICBA: 64 ICBA was est

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far

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    178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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