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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF USE

THE STATE OF USE available evaluation data for most accessions, even on standard agronomic and physiological traits. While the problem is serious in many collections of major crops, it becomes acute for underutilized crops and CWR. Thailand was one of a few countries that reported carrying out economic evaluation of its accessions. China called for better evaluation standards, while the Netherlands reported that it had largely harmonized its evaluation data and that these are now available online. Spain also reported progress in this area. An indication of the extent and nature of characterization of germplasm is given in Table 4.2. In general, it appears that the greatest effort has gone into characterizing morphological and agronomic traits and that molecular markers have been used relatively little outside the Near East. Abiotic and biotic stresses have received roughly equal attention. Since the first SoW report was published, core collections and other collection subsets have become increasingly important as a means of improving the efficiency and efficacy of evaluation. A core collection is a subset of a larger collection that aims to capture the maximum genetic diversity within a small number of accessions. 1 While the topic was not covered in the first SoW report, many country reports pointed out the value of well-documented core and mini-core collections to plant breeders, 2 and several suggested that it would be useful to expand the number of core collections to cover more crops than at present. Other countries, however, did not consider them useful. 3 Bangladesh stated that there was only limited knowledge about core collections in the country and Sri Lanka reported that core collections “have not been prepared for any of the crop species … (which) will hinder utilization of the conserved germplasm”. Argentina noted that core collections are useful for pre-breeding and could help increase the use of the country’s national collections. However, it also noted that the “development of core collections … requires broad understanding and characterization of the germplasm”. Several instances were reported in which core collections were developed in an attempt to improve the use of PGRFA. In the Americas, the six Southern Cone countries have collaborated in creating a regional maize core collection, made up of independently managed national components. Collectively, this core collection represents a significant percentage of the region’s genetic heritage and includes 817 of the 8 293 accessions maintained in the region. 4 In addition to maize, Brazil has assembled core collections on beans and rice and Uruguay on barley. Other examples include Kenya, which has established a core collection for sesame; Malaysia, which has established ten core collections, including cassava, sweet potato and taro; and China, which has established six core collections TABLE 4.2 Traits and methods used for characterizing germplasm: percentage of accessions characterized and/ or evaluated using particular methods, or evaluated for particular traits, averaged across countries in each region Region No. a Morphology Molecular markets Agronomic traits Biochemical traits Abiotic stresses Biotic stresses Africa 62 50 8 38 9 14 24 Americas 253 42 7 86 23 18 25 Asia and the Pacific 337 67 12 66 20 27 41 Europe 31 56 7 43 8 22 23 Near East 229 76 64 77 57 63 69 Source: NISM 2008 (available at: www.pgrfa.org/gpa). The figures are based on the response of 323 stakeholders from 42 developing countries to a question on the percentage of accessions characterized and/or evaluated for the various traits. a Total number of ex situ collections surveyed for which characterization data exist. 97

98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize and soybean. In Europe, Portugal has maize and rice core collections and the Russian Federation has 20 core collections, including wheat, barley and oats. Neither the Near East country reports nor the regional consultation highlighted efforts on core collections. Table 4.3 indicates the principal perceived constraints to the definition and establishment of core collections. A lack of adequate information on accessions is considered to be the major obstacle. Uganda, for example, stated that at present “… there are no core collections as the PGR accessions held have not been evaluated extensively …”. Lack of funds and personnel are also regarded as a significant hindrance as is an apparent lack of suitable accessions. While core collections remain the most common way to subdivide collections in order to facilitate their evaluation and use, other useful and powerful methods have recently been developed. The FIGS, for example, is a methodology that uses geographic origins to identify custom subsets of accessions with single and multiple trait(s) that may be of importance to breeding programmes. This methodology has been established for the combined VIR, ICARDA, Australian Winter Cereals Collection (AWCC) wheat landrace collection. Their database, which is publicly accessible, can be searched for using FIGS. 5 Since the publication of the first SoW report, there have been several new international initiatives THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA that support the increased characterization and evaluation of germplasm. Among them are several activities undertaken by the GCDT and the Generation Challenge Programme (GCP) of the CGIAR. Both provide additional tools to facilitate the establishment of subcollections and promote the use of PGRFA, the latter through the application of molecular techniques. 4.4 Plant breeding capacity There are numerous ways to improve crops genetically, from traditional crossing and selection to the most recent gene transfer techniques. But all of these depend on the ability of plant breeders to assemble genes for the desired traits within new varieties. Recognizing the importance of plant genetic improvement, most countries support some form of public and/or private plant breeding system. The GIPB 6 has assessed plant breeding capacity worldwide and the information assembled can be found in the Plant Breeding and Related Biotechnology Capacity Assessment (PBBC) 7 database. While the allocation of resources to plant breeding over the past decade has been relatively constant at the global level, there is considerable variation among individual countries and among regions. Certain national programmes, for example in Central America and East and North Africa, have reported a modest increase in the number of TABLE 4.3 Major obstacles to the establishment of core collections: percentage of respondents in each region who indicated that a particular restriction represented an important constraint in the region Region Funds Lack of personnel Limited number accessions Need not recognized Limited information on accessions Poor access to germplasm Method too complex Lack of interest Africa 100 67 50 17 67 0 8 8 Asia and the Pacific 44 67 44 67 78 33 44 11 Americas 92 75 42 33 75 17 0 8 Europe 100 33 67 33 100 0 0 0 Near East 67 89 67 44 33 22 22 22 Source: NISM 2008 (available at: www.pgrfa.org/gpa). The figures are based on the response of 45 plant breeders from 45 developing countries to a question on the obstacles to establishing core collections in the country.

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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