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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF USE

THE STATE OF USE plant breeders 8 but there has been a decline in others, e.g. in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Within the rest of Asia there have been decreases in Bangladesh and the Philippines while numbers have risen in Thailand. 9 The results of a survey looking at trends in plant breeding capacity in developing countries are summarized in Figure 4.2. According to the perception of plant breeders, since 1996, for most crops or crop groups the overall capacity has remained stable or decreased. There appear to be relatively few areas where higher investment has allowed progress in capacity building necessary to solve problems that will arise in the future. Based on information from the country reports and the GIPB-PBBC database, a comparison has been made between countries that reported in the first SoW report and a similar set of countries in 2009, regarding public versus private plant breeding programmes. Overall, there has been an increase in the number of countries reporting the existence of public breeding programmes; Europe is an exception. The increase is even more impressive for the private sector (see Figure 4.3). Both public and private sectors have shown the highest percentage increase in Africa, indicating that many new programmes have been created in this region since the first SoW report. However, while most countries have both public and private plant breeding programmes, many country reports indicate that there is a trend to move away from the public sector. 10 Even where there has been an increase in resources for public plant breeding in nominal terms, this often hides a reduction in real terms as a result of inflation and currency devaluation. Resources for field trials and other essential activities are often limiting. 11 FIGURE 4.2 Trends in plant breeding capacity; percentage of respondents indicating that human, financial and infrastructure resources for plant breeding of specific crops in their country had increased, decreased or remained stable since the first SoW report 100 80 60 40 20 0 Forage Nuts, fruits and berries Food legumes Cereals Vegetables Roots and tubers Fibre crops Oil crops Sugar crops % Increasing % Stable % Decreasing Source: NISM 2008 (available at: www.pgrfa.org/gpa). The figures are based on the response of 404 plant breeders from 49 developing countries to a question on the current trend within the stakeholders’ organization in terms of capacity to breed specific crops or crop groups. 99

CHAPTER 4 In the United States of America, it has been reported that “the decline in classical plant breeding [over recent years] is likely underestimated because marker development and other breeding related molecular genetics are included in plant breeding data”. 12 Major constraints to plant breeding, based on NISM databases, are summarized in Figure 4.4. While the data are indicative only and should be interpreted with care, stakeholders in all regions reported constraints in funding, human resources and, with the sole exception of Europe, facilities. The relative importance of these three areas of constraints is unchanged since the first SoW report, as is the fact that the greatest constraints are felt in Africa and the least, in Europe. In spite of these constraints, many opportunities remain for exploiting the genetic variation in landraces and relatively unimproved populations, using simple breeding techniques or even through direct release. For example, Zambia’s country report stated, “There has been renewed interest in recent years for the 100 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA FIGURE 4.3 Percentage of countries that reported the existence of public and private breeding programmes in the first and second SoW reports 100 Private plant breeding in 2009 80 60 40 20 0 Europe Near East Africa Asia and the Pacific Americas Private plant breeding in 1996 Public plant breeding in 2009 Public plant breeding in 1996 Source: Data from a set of similar countries that presented country reports for both the first and second SoW reports, complemented with information from the GIPB-PBBC database (available at: http://km.fao.org/gipb/pbbc/). need to screen and evaluate local germplasm of major crops’ and that there is a … lack of appreciation of locally available PGR …”. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic stated “Several local landraces of aromatic rice were identified and released for multiplication”. In addition, since the publication of the first SoW report a number of initiatives and legal instruments have been developed to promote the use of PGRFA at national and international levels. Box 4.1 presents some examples. There appears to have been an increase in the use of wild species in crop improvement, in part, due to the increased availability of methods for transferring useful traits from them to domesticated crops. The country report of the Russian Federation stated that CWR “… maintained and studied at VIR are also valuable as source materials and are often included in breeding programmes …”. However, in spite of their potential importance they remain relatively poorly represented in ex situ collections 13 (see Sections 1.2.2 and 3.4.3).

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    The designations employed and the p

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

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    CHAPTER 6 and African countries for

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far

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    178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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