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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF USE FIGURE

THE STATE OF USE FIGURE 4.4 Major constraints to plant breeding: percentage of respondents indicating that a particular constraint was of major importance in their region % 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Near East (36 Stakeholders/ 9 Countries) Africa (46 Stakeholders/ 15 Countries) Asia and the Pacific (67 Stakeholders/ 10 Countries) Source: NISM 2008 (available at: www.pgrfa.org/gpa). The figures are based on the response of 195 plant breeders from 36 developing countries in 5 regions to a question on the constraints to plant breeding. Biotechnological techniques have evolved considerably over the last ten years and there has been a concomitant increase in their use in plant breeding worldwide. A recent assessment of molecular markers in developing countries, for example, reported a significant increase in their use. 14 A similar trend has been reported in the number of plant biotechnologists in national plant breeding programmes. 15 Molecular characterization of germplasm has also become more widespread across regions and crops, although much remains to be done both to generate more data and make it more readily available. Tissue culture and micropropagation have become routine tools in many programmes, particularly for improving and producing disease-free planting materials of vegetatively propagated crops. In the Congo, micropropagation has been used to propagate threatened edible wild species. Tissue culture methods, important in their own right, are also essential for the application of modern biotechnology in crop improvement. They have become increasingly available in developing LAC (82 Stakeholders/ 14 Countries) Facilities Funds Human Resources countries because of their relatively limited technical requirements and cost. The use of MAS has also expanded considerably over the past decade and is now employed widely across the developed and developing world. 16 However, it has been used most often for research in academic institutions rather than in crop improvement per se. Currently, MAS is mainly used for a restricted number of traits in major crops notably in the private sector, although its application is expanding rapidly. Molecular marker based methods have also grown in popularity for use in research on genetic variation at the DNA level. However, molecular characterization of germplasm is still in its early stages and is seldom used routinely because of its high cost and the need for relatively sophisticated facilities and equipment. According to the country reports, GM-crops are now grown in more countries and on a larger area than was the case a decade ago. However, the number of crops and traits concerned remains small, in large part due to poor public acceptance and a lack of effective 101

CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and other regulations. The most commonly involved traits are resistance to herbicides and insects. Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, India, South Africa and the United States of America grow the most GM-crops; principally soybean, maize, cotton and oilseed rape. 22 Many developing countries reported that their capacity to apply recombinant DNA techniques in plant breeding remains limited and even in Europe problems were reported with regard to integrating modern and classical techniques. Portugal, for example, stated that “… there is no organized structure that integrates classical (breeding) methodologies with modern ones”, whereas Japan reported that modern biotechnologies have become routine in plant breeding. Numerous new fields of biotechnology have developed over the past decade that can have important applications in plant breeding research and practice, for example in facilitating the understanding of gene function and expression as well as the structure 102 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA Box 4.1 Examples of initiatives and legal instruments developed to promote PGRFA use • The African Centre for Crop Improvement (ACCI), 17 established in 2004 by the University of KwaZulu- Natal, trains plant breeders from eastern and southern Africa in conventional and biotechnological methods, with a focus on crops that are important for the food security of the poor. ACCI has a network of 47 plant breeders and co-supervisors in 13 countries. A parallel programme, the West African Centre for Crop Improvement (WACCI), 18 was set up by the University of Ghana to improve the crops that feed the people of West Africa. • A scheme has been launched in the United States of America to halt the decline of public investment in plant breeding. It is coordinated through a task force of the Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee. 19 • The GCP 20 is an initiative of the CGIAR that aims to create improved crops for small farmers through partnerships among research organizations. It focuses on using biotechnology to counter the effects of drought, pests, diseases and low fertility of soil through subprogrammes on genetic diversity, genomics, breeding, bio-informatics and capacity building. • The GIPB 21 is a multistakeholder partnership of public and private sector parties from developing and developed countries. It aims to enhance a plant breeding capacity and seed delivery systems of developing countries and improve agricultural production through the sustainable use of PGRFA. It is an internetbased initiative facilitated by FAO and provides a major portal for information dissemination and sharing. and function of proteins and metabolic products. Some of these fields are: • proteomics – the study of protein expression; • transcriptomics – the study of messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA); • genomics – the study of the structure and functions of DNA sequences; • metabolomics – the study of chemical processes involving metabolites; • phylogenomics – the study of gene function according to phylogenetics. In spite of such scientific advances, many programmes, especially in developing countries, are still unable to apply them in practical crop improvement. Not only do they remain expensive and demanding but many are also proprietary. However, it is expected that costs will fall in the future, opening up possibilities for these techniques to be taken up by an increasing number of programmes throughout the world.

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT the

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT TAB

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 53

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    CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR Syst

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    CHAPTER 6 • ICBA: 64 ICBA was est

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    CHAPTER 7 has been adapted to incor

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    CHAPTER 7 changes after the initial

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    CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far

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    178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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