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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

8.5 The growth in area

8.5 The growth in area under improved cereal varieties in 1980 and 2000 194 8.6 Seed sources by consumption group in Malawi (1=poor; 5=rich) 195 8.7 Volatility of international cereal prices 197 A4.1 Global yields of selected cereal crops (tonnes per hectare) 311 A4.2 Global yields of root and tuber crops (tonnes per hectare) 318 A4.3 Global yields of selected legume crops (tonnes per hectare) 322 A4.4 Global yields of sugar crops (tonnes per hectare) 325 A4.5 Global yields of miscellaneous crops (tonnes per hectare) 336 List of boxes 1.1 Examples of the use of molecular tools in conservation and characterization, as reported in selected country reports 12 2.1 A Crop Wild Relatives Project: increasing knowledge, promoting awareness and enhancing action 32 4.1 Examples of initiatives and legal instruments developed to promote PGRFA use 102 4.2 Improvement of passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) using genetic resources from wild relatives 106 5.1 Examples of developments in national legislation that support the conservation and use of traditional crop varieties 131 5.2 India’s Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act of 2001 134 7.1 Benefit-sharing under the ITPGRFA 166 7.2 Potential benefits from access and benefit-sharing as listed in the Bonn Guidelines 167 7.3 Implementing the Multilateral System through administrative measures – the experience of one Contracting Party 170 8.1 The Millennium Development Goals 183 8.2 NERICA rice 187 8.3 FAO Initiative on Soaring Food Prices 196 A3.1 List of plant species with ongoing genome sequencing projects in 2010 290 List of tables 1.1 Comparison between the collections maintained by AVRDC and the CGIAR centres in 1995 and 2008 5 1.2 Comparison between the collections maintained by selected national genebanks in 1995 and 2008 6 1.3 Crop groups and number of countries that provide examples of genetic erosion in a crop group 16 1.4 Indicators of global interdependency of selected crops 19 2.1 Summary of 14 priority CWR species as reported by Maxted & Kell, 2009 37 3.1 Regional and subregional distribution of accessions stored in national genebanks (international and regional genebanks are excluded) 56 xi

3.2 Holders of the six largest ex situ collections of selected crops 62 3.3 Global germplasm holdings in terms of type of accession (mean percentage) for groups of crops included in Appendix 2 68 3.4 Number and percentage of accessions of local origin in ex situ genebanks, excluding collections held in international and regional genebanks 69 3.5 Germplasm holdings at SGSV as of 18 June 2009 72 3.6 Extent of characterization for some of the collections held by CGIAR centres and AVRDC 80 3.7 Average extent of characterization and evaluation of national collections in 40 countries 81 3.8 Botanical garden collections of selected crops listed in Annex 1 of the ITPGRFA 86 4.1 Percentage of accessions of different types of PGRFA distributed by the IARCs to different classes of user from 1996 to 2006 95 4.2 Traits and methods used for characterizing germplasm: percentage of accessions characterized and/or evaluated using particular methods, or evaluated for particular traits, averaged across countries in each region 97 4.3 Major obstacles to the establishment of core collections: percentage of respondents in each region who indicated that a particular restriction represented an important constraint in the region 98 4.4 Major obstacles to base-broadening and crop diversification: percentage of respondents in each region reporting a particular obstacle as being important 105 4.5 Examples of country reports that mention the use of participatory plant breeding 105 6.1 Regional multicrop plant genetic resources networks around the world 145 7.1 Experience of the CGIAR centres with the SMTA from 1 January 2007 to 31 July 2007 (first line) and 1 August 2007 to 1 August 2008 (second line) 173 A2 Germplasm collections by crop 244 Abbreviations and acronyms 351 xii CD-ROM content • The Second Report on the State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture • Synthetic Account • Country Reports • Thematic Studies

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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