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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF USE TABLE

THE STATE OF USE TABLE 4.4 Major obstacles to base-broadening and crop diversification: percentage of respondents in each region reporting a particular obstacle as being important Region Policy and legal issues Marketing and commerce Obstacles to release heterogeneous materials as cultivars Africa 53 86 43 Asia and the Pacific 51 89 30 Americas 53 86 19 Europe 58 83 58 Near East 30 89 20 Source: NISM 2008 (available at: www.pgrfa.org/gpa). The figures are based on the response of 323 stakeholders from 44 countries to a question on the major constraints in the country to broaden diversity in the main crops grown In the Near East, 10 of the 27 countries that participated in the regional consultation indicated that they used participatory breeding approaches to improve different crops. In the Americas, the Latin America and the Caribbean regional consultation report stated: “Participatory breeding activities at the farm level are often mentioned as a priority, in order to add value to local materials and preserve genetic diversity”. Similar statements can be found in the reports of many countries in Asia, 25 Africa 26 and Europe. 27 In spite of the overall increase in PPB, farmer involvement has largely remained limited to priority setting and selection of finished crop cultivars. This is a similar situation to that reported in the first SoW report. India, for example, stated in its country report that “farmers’ participation is highest either at the stage of setting priorities or at the implementation stage”. In addition to the efforts of trained plant breeders, many farmers around the world, especially small-scale and subsistence farmers, are themselves intimately involved in the improvement of their crops. Indeed, most of the underutilized crops and a significant TABLE 4.5 Examples of country reports that mention the use of participatory plant breeding Country Crop Angola Maize Algeria Barley and date palm Azerbaijan Wheat, barley, rice, melon and grape Benin Rice and maize Burkina Faso Cereals and pulses Costa Rica Bean, cocoa, maize, banana, potato and coffee Cuba Bean, maize, pumpkin and rice Dominican Republic Pigeon pea Ecuador Various Guatemala Maize India Maize, rice and chickpea Jamaica Pepper, coconut and pumpkin Jordan Barley, wheat and lentil Lao People’s Democratic Republic Rice Netherlands Potato Malawi Bambara groundnut Malaysia Cocoa Mali Sorghum Morocco Barley, faba bean and wheat Namibia Millet, sorghum and legumes Nepal Rice and finger millet Nicaragua Beans and sorghum Philippines Maize, vegetables and root crops Portugal Maize Senegal Rice Thailand Rice and sesame Uganda Beans Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Local underutilized crops proportion of the major crops grown in developing countries are of varieties developed and in many cases continually improved, by farmers. While the majority of farmer breeding efforts are focused on the local 105

CHAPTER 4 exchange of material and selection among and within heterogeneous populations and landraces, cases have also been described where farmers make deliberate crosses and select within the resulting segregating populations. 28 Farmers and other rural dwellers are involved in improving not only crops, but also wild species. Cameroon, for example, pointed out in its country report that local selection of the wild species African pear (Dacroydes edulis) is carried out by farmers to eliminate poor individual plants from the local stands. 106 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA Box 4.2 Improvement of passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) using genetic resources from wild relatives a It is estimated that the genus Passiflora includes some 465 species, approximately 200 of which, originated from Brazil. In addition to their medicinal and ornamental properties, some 70 species bear edible fruit. In order for this enormous range of genetic diversity to be used in breeding programmes, either interspecific crossing among species or the direct transfer of genes through recombinant DNA technology are needed. Research at the Embrapa Cerrados station has resulted in several fertile interspecific hybrids with a potential application in plant breeding. For example, some types have been obtained that combine commercial traits with disease resistance. Wild species can contribute to the improvement of cultivated passion fruit in many different ways. Work currently underway in Brazil has shown that: • a number of interspecific hybrids, e.g. with P. nítida, can be used as rootstocks due to their strong stems; • wild relatives can be used to develop cultivated forms with resistance to bacteriosis, virosis and Cowpea Aphid-Borne Mosaic Virus (CABMV). Wild species with resistance to anthracnose have also been noted; • a number of wild species of Passiflora are fully self-compatible, a trait that is potentially important where Africanized bees are a problem, or labour for manual pollination is expensive. Other wild species, e.g. P. dontophylla, have a flower structure that facilitates pollination by insects that otherwise fail to pollinate the flowers; • wild species, such as P. setacea and P. coccinea could contribute daylength insensitivity which, under the conditions of the centre south region of Brazil, would enable production to occur all year round; • P. caerulea and P. incarnata both have tolerance to cold, a potentially important trait for several growing regions in Brazil; • several wild species also have the potential to improve the physical, chemical or taste characteristics of fruit for the fresh market or the pulp for sweets or ice-cream, e.g. larger fruit size from P. nitida and purple colouration from P. edulis; • interspecific crossing has also resulted in several new ornamental types. a Information taken from Brazil’s country report In addition to genetic improvement by farmers, some of the country reports mentioned efforts by producers to bring to the attention of consumers the nutritional, cultural and other benefits of locally developed and managed varieties. However, there are examples of the need for further planning and coordination to make farmer contributions to plant breeding fully effective. Policies and legislation have a significant impact on how farmers can benefit from their involvement in PPB programmes. In a large number of countries, varieties can only be registered when they comply

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far

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    178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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