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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF USE be

THE STATE OF USE be affected and synchronization of pollinators and flowering may be disrupted. Although switching to new cultivars and crops has the potential to alleviate many of the expected disturbances, this will require a greatly increased access to genetic diversity and a substantial strengthening of plant breeding efforts. Breeding must take into account the environment predicted for the crop’s target area at least 10 to 20 years hence, requiring that prediction methods be further developed in order to be as reliable as possible. Certain currently underutilized crops are likely to assume greater importance as some of today’s staples become displaced. It will be very important to characterize and evaluate as wide a range of germplasm as possible for avoidance, resistance or tolerance to major stresses such as drought, heat, water-logging and soil salinity. Research is also needed to gain a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms, biochemical pathways and genetic systems involved in such traits. In order to meet the challenges posed by climate change, it will be vital that effective plant breeding programmes are in place, with adequate human and financial resources, in all key agro-ecologies. It is predicted that climate change will have a significant impact within the relatively near future and given the long time required for a typical crop breeding cycle, it is essential that all necessary action be taken immediately to strengthen and accelerate breeding efforts. 4.10 Cultural aspects of PGRFA The use of PGRFA represents a broad continuum of activities that runs across the cultural, ecological, agricultural and research landscapes. Among these, agricultural uses of PGRFA get by far the most attention, although other uses are also extremely important in certain situations and to certain communities. Local and traditional foods, for example, are of great importance to almost all cultures, an importance that goes well beyond their nutritional significance. They might have important ceremonial or religious associations and in many cases are important to a society’s identity. However, traditional cultural uses tend to change slowly over time and are unlikely to have changed substantially since the first SoW report was published. However, having the basic programmes with adequate human and financial resources to screen germplasm and to run variety trials in key agro-ecologies is of paramount importance. A good example of this dimension was the well documented case of potato in developing countries that was highlighted as part of the celebration of the ‘International Year of the Potato’. 54 4.11 Changes since the first State of the World report was published The country reports indicated that during the period between the first and the second SoW reports there have been increased efforts to improve the state of use of plant genetic resources. Some of the most important changes since the first SoW report are: • overall global plant breeding capacity has not changed significantly; • a modest increase in the number of plant breeders has been reported by certain national programmes and a decline by others; • there has been little change in the crop focus of the breeding programmes as well as in the principal traits sought by plant breeders. Major crops still receive the most attention and yield per unit area continues to be the primary trait sought. However, recently more attention has been paid to underutilized crops and to the use of CWR; • the number of accessions characterized and evaluated and the number of countries where characterization and evaluation are carried out have increased in all regions but not in all individual countries. An increasing number of countries use molecular markers to characterize their germplasm; • progress has been made in genetic enhancement and base-broadening with several countries now reporting the use of these techniques as a way to introduce new traits from non-adapted populations and wild relatives; • while country reports from all five regions indicated an increase in farmer participation in plant 115

CHAPTER 4 breeding activities over the past decade, farmers’ involvement is still largely limited to priority setting and selecting from among advanced lines or finished varieties; • the constraints (human resources, funding and facilities) to greater use of PGRFA and their relative importance are similar to those reported in the first SoW report. However, issues such as the lack of fully effective linkages between researchers, breeders, curators, seed producers and farmers and lack of comprehensive information systems were also highlighted this time; • since the publication of the first SoW report, several new challenges have been recognized and these are beginning to be addressed in national analyses and strategies. Those highlighted in this report include: sustainable agriculture and ecosystem services, new and underutilized crops, biofuel crops, health and dietary diversity and climate change; • over the past decade, there has been a substantial increase in awareness of the extent and nature of the threats posed by climate change and of the importance and potential of PGRFA in helping agriculture to remain productive under the new conditions through the underpinning of efforts to breed new, adapted crop varieties; • the area sown with transgenic crops has increased substantially since 1996 and the seed market has grown in value in step with this. In 2007, 114.3 million hectares were planted with GM-crops, mainly soybean, maize, cotton and oilseed rape; • there has been a major increase in the international seed trade, which is dominated by fewer and larger multinational seed companies than in 1996. The focus of interest of these companies remains primarily on the development of improved varieties and the marketing of high quality seeds of major crops for which farmers replace seed yearly; • investment by the public sector in seed production, already at a low level in most developed countries at the time of first SoW report, has since then also decreased significantly in many developing countries. In many countries access to improved varieties and quality seed remains limited, especially for non-commercial farmers and the producers of minor crops; 116 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA • there is a trend to harmonize seed regulations at the regional level (Europe, East Africa, Southern Africa and West Africa) in order to facilitate seed trading and foster the development of the seed sector; • there has been an increasing move to integrate local seed systems within emergency responses aimed at supporting farmers in the aftermath of natural disasters and civil conflicts; • there is a growing market for specialized ‘niche’ seeds, such as for ‘heritage’ varieties. 4.12 Gaps and needs While good progress has been made in several areas relating to the use of PGR since the first SoW report was published, the country reports still recognize a number of gaps and needs. These include: • the urgent need to increase plant breeding capacity worldwide in order to be able to adapt agriculture to meet the rapidly expanding demand for more and different food, as well as non-food products, under substantially different climatic conditions from those prevailing today. The training of more breeders, technicians and field workers and the provision of better facilities and adequate funds are all essential; • the need for greater awareness of the value of PGRFA and the importance of crop improvement, in meeting future global challenges among policymakers, donors and the general public; • the need for countries to adopt appropriate and effective strategies, policies, legal frameworks and regulations that promote the use of PGRFA, including appropriate seed legislation; • considerable opportunities exist for strengthening cooperation among those involved in the conservation and sustainable use of PGRFA, at all stages of the seed and food chain. Stronger links are needed, especially between plant breeders and those involved in the seed system, as well as between the public and private sectors; • greater efforts are needed in order to mainstream new biotechnological and other tools within plant breeding programmes;

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    The designations employed and the p

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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