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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

Preface � he first

Preface � he first report on The State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (first SoW report) was presented to the Fourth International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources held in Leipzig, Germany, in 1996. The Conference welcomed the report as the first comprehensive worldwide assessment of the state of plant genetic resource conservation and use. The full version of the first SoW report was published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 1998. The Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA), at its Eighth Regular Session, reaffirmed that FAO should periodically assess the state of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA) to facilitate analyses of changing gaps and needs and contribute to the updating process of the rolling Global Plan of Action on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (GPA). The CGRFA, at its Eleventh Regular Session, reviewed progress on the preparation of The Second Report on the State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (SoWPGR-2) and noted that it should be a high quality document to identify the most significant gaps and needs, in order to provide a sound basis for the updating of the rolling GPA. It agreed that the SOWPGR-2 needed to be updated with the best data and information available, including country reports, information gathering processes and thematic studies, with the largest possible participation of countries, and should focus on changes that have occurred since 1996. The preparatory process of the SoWPGR-2 used country reports as the main source of information on the status and trends of plant genetic resource conservation and use at the national level. As additional sources of information, FAO used scientific literature, thematic background studies and other relevant technical publications. Throughout the preparation, FAO strived to ensure high quality of the data and made considerable efforts to ensure that the process was country-driven, participatory and involved relevant international organizations. The country reports were prepared based on the Guidelines for the Preparation of the Country Reports agreed by the CGRFA and made available in 2005. These Guidelines streamlined the process that had been established for the preparation of the SoWPGR-2 and introduced a new approach to monitor the implementation of the GPA. The SoWPGR-2 was produced based on information provided by 113 countries (see Annex 1). FAO received the first of the 111 country reports in 2006, however, the majority were received in 2008. Two additional countries supplied data using a simplified reporting format. Reports from countries are available on the CD attached to this publication. The progressive application of the new approach for the monitoring of the GPA implementation, that started in 2003, led to the establishment of National Information Sharing Mechanisms (NISM) in more than 60 countries worldwide (see Annex 1). Providing comprehensive information on the implementation of all the 20 priority activity areas of the GPA, the NISMs were widely used in the preparation of a large number of country reports. A wide range of partners, including Bioversity International on behalf of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), the Global Crop Diversity Trust (GCDT) and the Secretariat of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), as well as other relevant international organizations, provided inputs throughout the preparation process. Specific information from the CGIAR and other regional and international genebanks was gathered in 2008 under the coordination of the System Wide Genetic Resources Programme. xiii

The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR-2 address the same seven chapter topics that were selected for the first SoW report, with one additional chapter discussing the contribution of PGRFA management to food security and sustainable development. The CGRFA requested the preparation of in-depth studies on specific topics, including climate change, nutrition and health, as well as indicators on genetic erosion and seed systems, to complement the information provided through country reports. These studies were prepared in collaboration with several partners, including the CGIAR centres, and are available on the CD attached to this publication. The SoWPGR-2 identifies the most significant gaps and needs on the conservation and use of PGRFA that have arisen since the first SoW report, provides the basis for the updating of the rolling GPA and for designing strategic national, regional and international policies for the implementation of its priority activities. At its Twelfth Session the CGRFA endorsed the report as the authoritative assessment of this sector. On the request of the CGRFA, a synthetic account of the report was also prepared containing the main findings and highlighting the gaps and needs that need urgent attention. xiv

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

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    CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and

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    CHAPTER 4 improvement. While the fi

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    CHAPTER 4 A number of countries 36

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    CHAPTER 4 Different plants are rich

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    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

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    Chapter 5 The state of national pro

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    CHAPTER 5 of Bolivia, for example,

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    CHAPTER 5 In some countries includi

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    CHAPTER 5 Africa, Burkina Faso, Cam

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    CHAPTER 5 Box 5.2 India’s Protect

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    CHAPTER 5 the adoption of national

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    138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http

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    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

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    CHAPTER 6 a) those that focus on co

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 • the Regional Cooperat

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    CHAPTER 6 and African countries for

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    CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR Syst

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    CHAPTER 6 • ICBA: 64 ICBA was est

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    CHAPTER 7 has been adapted to incor

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    CHAPTER 7 changes after the initial

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    CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far

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    178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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