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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF NATIONAL

THE STATE OF NATIONAL PROGRAMMES, TRAINING NEEDS AND LEGISLATION 5.1 Introduction National programmes for the conservation and sustainable use of PGRFA aim to support economic and social development and underpin efforts to develop more productive, efficient and sustainable agricultural systems. They lie at the heart of the global system for conserving and using PGRFA. While international cooperation between national programmes is essential and is dealt with in Chapter 6, this chapter attempts to define and categorize national programmes, describes developments that have taken place since 1996, identifies current needs and opportunities for training and capacity building and describes the status of national legislation. The chapter concludes with a summary of the main changes that have taken place since the publication of the first SoW report and presents key gaps and needs for the future. 5.2 State of national programmes 5.2.1 Purpose and functions of national programmes Priority Activity Area 15 of the GPA advocates the formation or strengthening of national programmes for PGRFA as a strategy to involve and coordinate all relevant institutions and organizations in a country, in a holistic enterprise aimed at promoting and supporting the conservation, development and use of PGRFA. Countries vary in the extent to which national PGRFA programmes are incorporated in national developmental plans, or are included in more specific agricultural or environmental policies and strategies. Components of a national programme include both the institutions and organizations involved in PGRFA as well as the linkages and communications among them. In practice, the design and function of a national programme is country specific, shaped by many factors such as history, geography, the status of biodiversity, the nature of agricultural production and relationships with neighbouring countries with respect to shared biodiversity. An efficient national PGRFA programme should have well-defined goals, clear priorities and a blueprint for implementation. It needs to be well structured and coordinated, involving all relevant stakeholders, no matter how diverse. Its success depends to a large extent on the commitment of national governments to provide the necessary funding, policies and institutional framework. Given the aforementioned, it is not surprising that there is considerable heterogeneity among national programmes in terms of their goals, functions, organization and infrastructure. At the same time there are many commonalities, in part arising from obligations incurred under various international instruments such as the CBD, the ITPGRFA, the GPA and various other trade and IPR agreements (see Chapter 7). 5.2.2 Types of national programmes In the first SoW report, an attempt was made to classify the diversity of national programmes into three categories: (i) a formal, centralized system; (ii) a formal, sectorial system in which different institutions take on a leadership role for specific components of the national programme, with national coordination; and (iii) a national mechanism for coordination only, involving all relevant institutions and organizations. In retrospect, this scheme may have been too simplistic. The process of compiling information for the SoWPGR-2 revealed a wide diversity of national PGRFA systems, in terms of size, structure, organization, institutional composition, funding and objectives. It was difficult to distinguish the three categories of national PGRFA activities used for the first SoW report. For example, there are centralized systems that may not be ‘formal’ and there are sectorial systems that do not have coordination mechanisms. Perhaps the most familiar model is a national centralized system based on a vertical integration of PGRFA units within a national institution, such as a Ministry of Agriculture, funded by the national government, with linkages to relevant sectors outside the central organization, such as academic institutions, NGOs and the private sector, coordinated by a national advisory coordinating committee. Another model is a 123

CHAPTER 5 national system based on decentralized but strongly coordinated sectorial leadership, with funding arising independently from each sector. Yet another model might be a regional structure involving other countries, balancing components that are missing in one country with components that are well developed in another. In this case, expertise and germplasm are shared, training opportunities are enhanced and greater efficiency is achieved as a result of no single country having to develop every component independently. Countries were not asked to self-identify their type of national programme with respect to the three categories, for either the first or second SoW reports. In many instances, factors that would have helped in the categorization were not reported. Information on the current status and trends in national programmes since the first SoW report was published should thus be interpreted with caution. Interpretation is complicated further by the fact that a different and smaller set of countries provided information for the second report compared with those reporting in 1996 and that in most cases a different person or group of people was responsible for providing country report information in the two time periods. In spite of these difficulties, some revealing and relevant comparisons are possible. 5.2.3 Status of development of national programmes There has been considerable progress over the last decade in the percentage of countries having a national programme of one type or another. Of the 113 countries 1 that contributed information for both the first and second SoW reports, 54 percent reported having a national programme in 1996, whereas 71 percent report having some form of national programme now. At the time of the first SoW report, 10 percent of reporting countries had a national programme ‘under development’. Of these, seven provided information for SoWPGR-2 and all but one had followed through, now being able to report a national programme in place. Of the 120 countries that provided information for the SoWPGR-2 either through a country report, a NISM, or participation in a regional workshop, 2 the 124 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA most common type of national programme reported is a sectorial type (67 percent of reporting countries), whether formal or informal, with national coordination or not. Most of the current reports from countries that still lack a national programme recognize the value of establishing one and are discussing what form it might take and what is needed. A few of these indicated that committees are currently looking into the situation. It is clear that there is still room for countries to improve national systems and coordination of PGRFA. Comprehensive PGRFA management requires the integration of efforts within and outside the country concerned, involving the participation of a diverse set of institutions. As described elsewhere in this report (see, for example, Section 4.7.3), the weak links between the PGRFA conservation and use sectors are still a major concern. There are some signs that the situation may be improving, for example, a number of countries now include their PGRFA programmes within the context of their national development plans and the like. However, strong and fully effective institutional links between national genebanks and plant breeders and/or farmers are still comparatively rare, especially in developing countries. Even in countries with active and well-coordinated national programmes, certain key elements may be missing. National, publicly accessible databases, for example, are still comparatively rare as are coordinated systems for safety duplication and collaborative public awareness. Another area that still requires greater attention in many national programmes is a more effective integration of the efforts of the public and private sectors (see Chapters 1 and 4). In a number of countries, private plant breeding and seed sector companies need to see the value of devoting time and resources to strengthening their collaboration with public sector technical institutions. In other cases, however, it was the private sector that insisted that governments should establish national programmes. Country reports from many regions mentioned NISMs in relation to the implementation of the GPA, as a valuable tool for establishing and improving national programmes. 3 Participating countries recognized NISM helpful role in facilitating the management of

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    The designations employed and the p

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 3

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION F

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

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    CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far

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    178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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