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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF NATIONAL

THE STATE OF NATIONAL PROGRAMMES, TRAINING NEEDS AND LEGISLATION information and the exchange of PGRFA, as well as for fostering within-country identification of stakeholders and promoting collaboration. The process of contributing to a NISM integrates the efforts of different stakeholders, thus helping to build a broader institutional base for the conservation and use of PGRFA. NISMs provide a key platform for information sharing, policy setting, scientific exchange, technology transfer, research collaboration and for determining and sharing responsibilities. They are also important in the regional and international context in helping to raise awareness of the value of PGRFA and the actions being undertaken by other countries to conserve and use it. 5.2.4 National programme funding The majority of the country reports indicated that the primary source of funding to sustain their national programme was from the national government. This is one indicator that can be used to help define a ‘formal’ programme. In some cases this is supplemented by funds from international donors. Individual components of the national system (e.g. units involved with conservation, crop improvement, seed systems, crop protection, protected areas, extension, education, or training) generally receive funds from a variety of different sources: different ministries, national or international funding agencies and foundations, or private philanthropy. To a large extent, the participation of private, for-profit companies within national systems is self-funded. Although several countries, especially in Europe, reported that overall funding has increased substantially since 1996, many of the country reports noted that their national programme received inadequate and unreliable funding, making it difficult to plan over multiple years. While national genebanks per se generally have direct and identifiable funds provided by the national government, the financing of national coordinating mechanisms and other elements of a national system are often buried within other budget categories and hence, subject to greater uncertainty. In some regions, for example, Africa, the country reports have highlighted the need for greater support for infrastructure. Where this has not been forthcoming from national governments, help has sometimes come from international and regional organizations, bilateral agencies and private foundations. In general, funding support from such agencies for the conservation and use of PGRFA in developing countries appears to have increased since the first SoW report was published. Although there are no figures available to indicate overall trends in funding, the CBD, GPA and ITPGRFA have all clearly helped to give greater prominence to the subject and overall, this has almost certainly had a positive impact. Likewise, the international publicity surrounding events such as the launching of the GCDT and the opening of the SGSV have served to raise awareness of the importance of conserving and using PGRFA in the minds of the general public, policymakers and donors. While the level and reliability of funding are major factors that determine the strength and effectiveness of a national PGRFA programme, other factors are also important such as the extent of public awareness and support, political will and the quality of leadership and management. These factors clearly vary from country to country and from region to region, as does financial support. 5.2.5 Role of the private sector, nongovernmental organizations and educational institutions As described above, in most countries the national government is the principal entity involved in national programmes for the conservation and use of PGRFA, generally through multiple public sector institutions under one or several ministries. However, the involvement of other stakeholders appears to have expanded since the publication of the first SoW report. These include private, for-profit companies, NGOs, farmer organizations and other rural community groups and educational institutions, especially universities. 5.2.5.1 Private sector Private sector companies are very diverse in size, scope and core business and their participation in national programmes reflects this diversity. Their interests and 125

CHAPTER 5 involvement vary from the collecting and maintenance of germplasm collections (generally breeders’ working collections) and the evaluation of germplasm, to genetic improvement, multilocation testing, biosafety and seed release, multiplication and distribution. They are also sometimes actively involved in education, training and public awareness activities. Over recent years, public-private research and development partnerships appear to have grown in importance, especially in the area of biotechnology. 4 Within Western Europe, Australia and the United States of America and other industrialized countries, the private sector now accounts for a large proportion of the total breeding effort (see Section 4.4) and it is expanding rapidly elsewhere, especially in parts of Latin America and Asia. Stronger links between private companies and public institutions involved in basic research, conservation, genetic enhancement, information systems, and the like, offer considerable potential benefits for all parties concerned. 5.2.5.2 Non-governmental organizations In many countries NGOs play a very important role at the farm and community level in promoting and supporting the conservation and management of PGRFA. Their activities range from direct involvement in in situ conservation in protected areas to promoting the on-farm management of PGRFA for the benefit of local households and communities. Many are also active in lobbying governments to devote more attention to these issues. In a number of countries, NGOs actively participate in nationally coordinated efforts. It is not possible to provide a comprehensive overview or analysis of NGO activities in PGRFA because they are so numerous and diverse, especially at the regional and national levels. According to the country reports, NGOs are active in most regions and are particularly strong in Africa, Asia, Europe and parts of Latin America. Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland reported the effective involvement of NGOs. In Asia, NGOs such as LI- BIRD in Nepal and the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation and Gene Campaign in India have been very active in promoting the on-farm management of PGRFA. Farmers’ unions and cooperatives are 126 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA recognized as important and crucial stakeholders in many countries of the Near East region. A number of national PGR workshops and training programmes have helped enhance the role of NGOs within national programmes, especially in technology transfer, public awareness and capacity building. 5.2.5.3 Universities Universities are active participants and collaborators in national PGRFA programmes in many countries and in all regions. Many examples have been cited elsewhere in this report. Not only are universities vital for their role in the development of human resources but they also contribute substantially to research and the development of PGRFA. They have become increasingly involved in the application of biotechnology to conservation and crop improvement, for example, in cryopreservation, in vitro propagation, the development and application of molecular markers, the measurement and monitoring of genetic diversity, and the analyses of species relationships. While they play a vital role, many universities and other learning institutions, especially in developing countries, lack adequate facilities and financial support, which limits their ability to contribute to their maximum capacity. 5.3 Training and education Meeting national programme needs for training and capacity building is among the priorities listed in the GPA. Expanding and improving education and training is Priority Activity Area 19 in the GPA and capacity building is addressed by the entire fourth section. Strengthened staff competence is needed in all sectors: scientists and technicians, development workers, NGOs and farmers. Special efforts are needed to educate research managers and policy-makers. In many countries biological sciences curricula at all educational levels need to be developed or updated to include conservation biology, especially with respect to agrobiodiversity. Since 1996, a number of developments have taken place in training and education, with significant new opportunities opening up in several countries.

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    The designations employed and the p

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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