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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF NATIONAL

THE STATE OF NATIONAL PROGRAMMES, TRAINING NEEDS AND LEGISLATION Collaboration for training between national programmes and international and regional organizations, especially with FAO and the CGIAR centres, has expanded and capacity building opportunities have increased. Much of this has been the result of additional funding becoming available from bilateral and multilateral donors for research projects that have a human resources development component. More universities are now offering short-term informal courses as well as longerterm M.Sc. and Ph.D. courses in areas related to PGRFA. New training materials are becoming available and field and laboratory facilities for training have improved in a number of countries. However, in spite of these developments, there is still a need for greater capacity in education and training to meet the expanding demand for new, well-trained professionals and for upgrading the skills and expertise of those already engaged in the conservation or use of PGRFA. Most national programmes concerned with on- farm management of PGRFA aim to build both their own professional capacity as well as that of the farmers with whom they work. However, many NGOs and development agencies lack sufficient qualified personnel to impart the necessary training to farming communities. While higher-degree training in in situ conservation and on-farm management of PGRFA was specifically mentioned by Indonesia, Malawi and Zambia, most capacity building in these areas has been less formal. Cuba, India and Nepal, for example, all indicated that there has been an increase in the number of groups trained in PPB (see Section 4.6.2) and the compilation of community biodiversity registers. Several country reports 5 mentioned activities on the on-farm management of PGRFA that include technical courses for farmers, farmer-to-farmer training, the setting up of farmer associations, courses for extension workers and short-term professional training. Participatory approaches have been central to much of the work undertaken in this area and have resulted in the enhancement of local capacity for informal research and the evaluation of diversity. In Morocco and Nepal, work on diversity has been linked to literacy campaigns that inter alia help strengthen diversity management capabilities. Increased gender awareness has been another important facet within many projects, not only through the collection of gender-disaggregated data and the participation of women farmers, but also as a result of the increased involvement of women in research and project management. Since the first SoW report was published, many new manuals and other tools have been developed to support training on how to manage on-farm genetic diversity. Examples include a training guide developed by Bioversity International, 6 a source book on the conservation and sustainable use of agricultural biodiversity by CIP, 7 and a ‘tool kit’ to help the development of strategies for the on-farm management of PGRFA. 8 The community biodiversity management approach, including community biodiversity registries, aims to build the capacity of local communities to make their own decisions on the conservation and use of biodiversity. 9 It does this through facilitating community access to knowledge, information and genetic materials. The following sections summarize major developments in relation to training and education on a regional basis. Africa From an analysis of the country reports it appears that in spite of advances in several countries, overall capacity to carry out training and education on PGRFA in Africa remains limited. Universities in Benin, Ghana, Kenya and Madagascar all reported that courses on genetic resources have been included in university curricula at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In Benin and Côte d’Ivoire, postgraduate courses have been initiated in collaboration with Bioversity International and a partnership has been established in Kenya to teach a diploma course on PGR conservation involving Maseno University together with KARI, the Kenya Forest Research Institute (KEFRI) and the National Museums of Kenya (NMK). In Ethiopia, the IBC organizes both long- and short-term training courses on the management of genetic resources. Americas In Latin America, several countries have invested in educational programmes. The Plurinational State 127

CHAPTER 5 of Bolivia, for example, has offered ten short-term university courses in PGR since 1996 and in Brazil, the Federal University of Santa Catarina started M.Sc. and Ph.D. courses in 1997 with financial support from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). In Argentina, undergraduate and M.Sc. courses are available in several universities. In Costa Rica, the EARTH University offers regular courses in subjects related to genetic resources and in 2002, a postgraduate course, entitled ‘Management and Sustainable Use of PGR’, was conducted at CATIE with the aim of improving the use of genetic diversity of cultivated plants. A large training programme exists in Mexico, where many universities and other institutions offer courses in aspects of genetic resources, from secondary school to postgraduate levels and in Uruguay, undergraduate courses in applied science cover subjects related to conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. According to the country reports, however, there is currently no formal training programme on genetic resources in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Jamaica, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago or the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Asia and the Pacific In recent years several regional and international shortterm training courses have been conducted including: field genebank maintenance (Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM); in vitro conservation and cryopreservation (NBPGR, India); documentation and bamboo genetic resources, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM) and the Universiti Malaya (UM, Malaysia); in vitro conservation and cryopreservation of tropical fruit genetic resources (NBPGR, India); molecular data analysis of tropical fruit tree species diversity (Huazhong Agricultural University, China); cryopreservation of tropical fruit genetic resources (Griffith University, Australia); use of molecular markers for characterization of genetic resources (Huazhong Agricultural University, China); and on-farm and community-based conservation and the role of public awareness (Secretariat of the Pacific Community [SPC, Fiji]). Both Bioversity International and NIAS/Japan’s International Cooperation Agency (JICA) have been 128 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA actively involved in training on the management of PGRFA in the region. Recently, Bioversity International has recognized NBPGR, India and the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Bioversity Centre of Excellence for Agrobiodiversity Resources and Development of China (CEARD) as Centres of Excellence for training on in vitro conservation and cryopreservation. In Nepal, LI-BIRD and the Napok Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) have been identified as Centres of Excellence for training in onfarm conservation. The University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU) has entered into an agreement with Bioversity International to develop specialized courses on international and national policy and laws relating to the management of PGR. The Genetic Resources Policy Initiative (GPRI) of Bioversity International has published several training documents and other materials for use in education and training programmes. Since 1996, NBPGR and the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi have offered joint M.Sc. and Ph.D. degree programmes in the conservation and management of genetic resources. Formal degree programmes were also initiated at the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB), the Philippines in 1997 and in Malaysia and Sri Lanka in 2000. In the Pacific Islands, the University of the South Pacific (USP), Alafua Campus, Samoa, hosted a meeting on PGR Education in 2004. Later, the Centre for Flexible and Distance Learning of USP was mandated to develop a course curriculum on genetic resources. Europe In Europe, many universities provide courses in agricultural sciences, plant breeding and plant science, which include aspects of PGR. Formal B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. degree programmes having special emphasis on biodiversity and genetic resources have been established in several countries as a response to calls for action by the CBD. In some countries, genebank staff are engaged as university faculty members on an adjunct or part-time basis and various institutions, societies, NGOs and a few national genebanks offer

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

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    178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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