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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF NATIONAL

THE STATE OF NATIONAL PROGRAMMES, TRAINING NEEDS AND LEGISLATION short courses (workshops, seminars) on practical aspects of PGRFA. Courses on collecting and conservation techniques are very much in demand, especially in Eastern Europe. Near East Universities in Egypt, Jordan and Morocco are developing master’s degree programmes that focus on the conservation of genetic resources and the management of natural resources. Substantial efforts have been made in a number of countries to increase public awareness of the importance of conserving biodiversity in general and agrobiodiversity in particular. Jordan, Kazakhstan, Morocco, the Syrian Arab Republic and the West Bank and Gaza Strip, have developed educational curricula and extracurricular activities directed at increasing the awareness of students and their parents. A variety of different media (TV, radio, workshops, meetings, posters, leaflets, agricultural fairs and ecotourism) have been used by government agencies and by different biodiversity projects in the region to help educate the public. The innovative use of rural theatre by the Extension Directorate in the Syrian Arab Republic, for example, has resulted in increased general public awareness of the role and value of PGRFA. In conclusion, while good progress has been made, there is still much to be done to provide more and better training opportunities at the local, national, regional and international levels. 5.4 National policy and legislation While many important agreements relating to PGRFA have been negotiated and adopted at the international level (see Chapter 7), the number of national laws and regulations has also increased. Appendix 1 provides details of the status of countries with respect to their signing or ratifying major international agreements as well as the enactment of national laws relating to the conservation and use of PGRFA. The following sections describe the status of national regulations and legislation in five areas: phytosanitary regulations, seed regulations, IPRs, Farmers’ Rights and biosafety. Regional approaches to phytosanitary regulations are dealt with in Section 6.4.1 and the topic of ABS is a major topic of Chapter 7. 5.4.1 Phytosanitary regulations Most countries in all regions have adopted national phytosanitary legislation. Since the first SoW report was published, much of the new national legislation in this area has been influenced by the adoption of the revised text of the IPPC in 1997 (see Section 6.4). 10 Many countries subsequently amended their plant protection laws or enacted new ones to ensure that their legislation used the new definitions from the 1997 text and reflected the concepts and rules of the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. One of the main changes that occurred is the requirement that the decision to import plants, plant products and other regulated articles should have a scientific basis. All decisions on imports that are not based on international standards must be based on pest risk analysis. 5.4.2 Seed regulations The seed system is highly regulated in most countries, from the release of new varieties and the quality control of seeds to the legal status of organizations that implement seed control and certification and variety release procedures. Since the first SoW report was published, three main trends have occurred: the emergence of voluntary arrangements regarding seed certification and variety release; the growing use of accreditation principles within official national rules and standards; and the regional harmonization of seed laws (see Section 4.8). Recent years have seen a significant development of the seed trade by the public and, especially, private sectors, largely in parallel with the more traditional seed exchange arrangements of local agricultural communities. This has led governments to set up seed regulations for the protection of seed users (farmers, consumers and agrifood industries) that cover such areas as catalogues of plant varieties, marketing authorization and seed-quality control. 129

CHAPTER 5 In some countries including Australia, Canada and New Zealand as well as some Latin American, African and Asian countries, the growth of the private seed sector has led governments to review their seed laws, resulting in many cases, in a shift away from compulsory rules on seed certification and variety release towards more voluntary arrangements. The largely self-regulated nature of variety release and seed certification in the United States of America allows for the marketing of seeds of local varieties. In India, changes have been made in the other direction, from voluntary arrangements to more compulsory rules, with a view to strengthening the protection of consumers and small farmers. The growth of the private seed sector has also led to an increased use of accreditation principles within the national or regional seed rules and standards of a number of industrialized countries and ones with emerging economies. The introduction of private certification and testing services or in-company systems, complements or, in some cases, replaces the government’s traditional role in these matters. Taking into account the evolution of seed regulations, the International Seed Federation (ISF) has regularly updated its rules dealing with contracts among seed merchants and between companies and contract growers. The third main trend is the regional harmonization of seed laws, especially in Africa and Europe, in order to avoid disincentives to cross-border seed trade. The most far-reaching example of regional harmonization of seed laws is in the European Union where seed certification and seed quality standards 11 were adopted in the late 1960s and a common variety catalogue established in 1970. In 2008, the concept of ‘conservation varieties’ was introduced. These are varieties that, although having to meet quality standards, have neither to adhere to strict uniformity and stability rules nor have any proven value for cultivation and use. 12 However, such ‘conservation varieties’ are limited to old and locally used varieties that are threatened by genetic erosion. In the countries of Southern Africa, the harmonization of seed laws with the assistance of FAO resulted in the adoption in the early 2000s of a joint variety list that enables varieties to be grown in the different member 130 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA countries. However, a variety must be listed in at least two countries before it enters the SADC regional list. Harmonization efforts are also underway in Western Africa with the development of a joint variety list by members of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the adoption in 2008 of Regulation C/REG.4/05/2008 on the Harmonization of the Rules Governing Quality Control, Certification and Marketing of Plant Seeds and Seedlings in the ECOWAS Region. In parallel with these trends and despite growing awareness of the value of informal exchange of seeds among farmers, most laws explicitly apply to packed and certified seed with only very few countries having exemptions or special arrangements for farmers’ seed (see Box 5.1). Most seed laws aim to protect the seed label and are reserved for controlled seeds, labelled ‘Government-certified seeds’, ‘Government-tested seeds’, or the like. The Moroccan seed law restricts the use of the word ‘seed’ to controlled seed only. In many countries, the informal marketing of local varieties and landraces is illegal. A major challenge in developing national seed laws is balancing the need to promote diversity and local varieties with systems that promote access to good quality seed of appropriate varieties. Another challenge, reported by several countries, is how to ensure the effective implementation of seed laws and regulations in situations where government funding, trained staff and infrastructure are limited. 5.4.3 Intellectual Property Rights Systems for protecting and rewarding IP in relation to PGRFA primarily involve PBR and patents. The following sections give an overview of the state of play at the national level in both of these areas. Other forms of IPR can also play a role, for example, trade secrets for protecting inbred lines for producing hybrid varieties, geographical indications for protecting products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities, reputation, or characteristics that are essentially attributable to that origin and copyright for protecting databases and other information sources. However, these are not considered further in this report.

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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