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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF REGIONAL

THE STATE OF REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION 6.1 Introduction The previous chapter of this report described the current status of national programmes and trends that have occurred since the first SoW report was published. This chapter will describe and attempt to analyse developments at the international level. Overall there has been a dramatic increase in international activities since 1996, in all fields related to the conservation and use of PGRFA. Many new regional and crop-specific networks and programmes have been set up, at least in part in response to the priorities for action contained in the GPA. The CBD and the ITPGRFA have both served to give prominence to the need for greater international collaboration. Many programmes set up to promote various aspects of the Convention or Treaty, involve collaboration among multiple partners. For example, the creation of the MLS for ABS under the ITPGRFA has greatly strengthened awareness of needs and opportunities in this area and although it is not yet possible to assess its impact quantitatively, there are signs that cooperation is expanding with respect to germplasm exchange. Section 1.4 describes the extent of interdependence among all nations with respect to PGRFA. Such interdependence, arising from the spread of crops around the globe from their centres of origin, makes international cooperation not just desirable but essential if the full value of PGRFA is to be realized. Awareness among policy-makers and the general public of the importance of PGRFA and the extent of interdependence has grown considerably in recent years, at least in part because of high-profile initiatives such as the establishment and opening of the SGSV. Given the very large number of regional and international networks, programmes, institutions and other cooperative initiatives involving PGRFA that are now in existence, it is not possible to mention them all and this chapter does not attempt to provide a comprehensive coverage. Indeed, given the huge diversity in types of collaborative arrangements, it is even difficult to classify them into any consistent and useful typology. This chapter thus presents major developments that have occurred since the first SoW report was published, with respect to multicrop associations and networks, crop-specific networks, thematic networks, regional and international organizations and programmes, bilateral programmes, international and regional agreements and funding mechanisms. While an attempt has been made throughout the chapter to assess the extent of progress since 1996, this is made difficult by the fact that the information in the first SoW report is all of a qualitative nature and it has not been possible to get any quantitative data on the current status of regional and international cooperation or on trends over recent years. The chapter concludes with a review of major changes that have occurred since 1996 and lists some ongoing gaps and needs for the future. 6.2 PGRFA networks A very large number of networks currently address one or more aspects of PGRFA. Many of these have come into existence since the first SoW report was published. While all aim to promote and support collaboration among partners for a common purpose, there is a huge diversity in their objectives, size, focus, geographic coverage, membership, structure, organization, governance, funding, etc. For ease of reference, the term ‘network’ will generally be used to describe such collaborative arrangements, irrespective of whether they are formally called a network, or have adopted a different title such as association, alliance, cooperative, consortium or coalition. Networks are very important for promoting cooperation, sharing knowledge, information and ideas, exchanging germplasm and for carrying out joint research and other activities. They support the sharing of expertise and help compensate or provide backstopping in cases where certain network participants lack the critical mass to carry out particular activities. They enable synergies to be captured when different partners have different and complementary skills and capacities. Collaboration is also critical to gaining maximum benefits under legal and policy instruments such as the CBD, GPA and ITPGRFA and to meeting associated obligations. Networks in the PGRFA field generally fall into one of three broad categories: 143

CHAPTER 6 a) those that focus on conservation, often regional and multicrop in nature; b) those that focus on one of a few specific crops and may be either regional or global in scope. The primary objective of many such networks is to facilitate crop improvement; c) those that address a particular topic or theme relating to PGRFA, across crops, such as seed systems, genomics, taxonomy, or in situ conservation. Overall, good progress has been made since the first SoW report was published in all three groups of networks. The following sections do not attempt to provide comprehensive coverage or description of all relevant networks, but rather, give a snapshot of some of the more significant changes that have occurred since 1996. 6.2.1 Regional multicrop PGRFA networks Since 1996, the number of regional and subregional PGRFA networks has grown so that all countries in all areas of the world are now eligible to join one or more of them. They bring together the heads of national genetic resources programmes, genebank managers and others concerned with conservation and in many cases also include various users of PGRFA, such as plant breeders, NGOs and the private sector. In many cases, these networks are linked to the regional fora, which in turn are key participants in the GFAR, described later. Table 6.1 lists the main PGRFA networks that fall into this category. Some of the major developments that have taken place over recent years in these networks, as well as a few other regional multicrop networks, are described for each region. Overall, the networks have tended to be most active in the areas of training and documentation and have taken on a leadership role in the development of regional PGRFA conservation strategies, under an initiative of the GCDT. Africa Networking in PGRFA has expanded considerably in Africa since the publication of the first SoW 144 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA report. FARA 1 was created in 2002 as an umbrella organization bringing together and supporting the three African subregional associations concerned with agricultural research for development: the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), the West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development (CORAF/WECARD) and the SADC, Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Directorate (FANR). These three entities provide the umbrella for the three main PGRFA networks in Sub-Sahara Africa: EAPGREN, the Genetic Resources Network for West and Central Africa (GRENEWECA) and SADC, Plant Genetic Resources Network (PGRN): • the East African Plant Genetic Resources Network (EAPGREN): 2 EAPGREN, hosted by ASARECA, became operational in 2003 with a membership comprising ten countries. 3 The Nordic Genebank (NGB) and Bioversity International provide technical backstopping. It has undertaken a wide range of activities in Eastern Africa including the exchange of information, training, awareness raising and policy advocacy. An information and documentation centre is currently being set up and greater collaboration among genebanks, farmers and other end-users is being promoted. A regional strategy for PGR has been developed under the GCDT initiative and key ex situ collections have been identified that require urgent regeneration as mentioned in the Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda country reports; • GRENEWECA: This network was established in 1998 under the CORAF/WECARD. 4 Various meetings have been held e.g. in Ibadan, Nigeria in 2004 and in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in 2006 to discuss regional strategies. Funding support has come from Bioversity International and GCDT mainly but overall, GRENEWECA has not had the same level of external funding support as the other African regional PGRFA networks. The establishment of four nodal centres of excellence has been proposed as a means of strengthening PGR activities at the subregional level; • SADC Plant Genetic Resources Network (SADC- PGRN): 5 Although established in 1989, the SADC-

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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