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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF REGIONAL

THE STATE OF REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION germplasm enhancement; (iii) a symposium on genetic resources in the Americas; (iv) collaborative research projects on tree tomatoes, cherimoya, native potatoes and Lycopersicon spp.; and (v) a programme on germplasm regeneration; • the Plant Genetic Resources Network for the Southern Cone (REGENSUR): This network, comprising six countries, 9 is a network of PROCISUR that seeks to strengthen the work of the national programmes in the Southern Cone. Over the last decade, its activities have included: (i) training on germplasm enhancement, documentation, genebank management, in situ conservation and seed-pathology; (ii) hosting a workshop to develop the regional PGRFA conservation strategy for the Americas; and (iii) carrying out collaborative research on maize, wheat and vegetables. • the Mesoamerican Network on Plant Genetic Resources (REMERFI); This network of eight countries 10 in Central America has been relatively inactive since 1996 although activities carried out in recent years have included: (i) training and capacity building on documentation; (ii) research projects on seeds; (iii) genetic resources of Annonaceae and Sapotaceae; and (iv) the conservation and use of native neo-tropical crops and their wild relatives; • the Amazonian Network for Plant Genetic Resources (TROPIGEN): Operating under PROCITROPICOS, this network has eight member countries. 11 Activities since 1996 have included: characterization of underexploited vegetable and fruit crops; germplasm evaluation; identifying gaps in collections; prioritizing species for PGR research and management; developing a policy framework for access and benefit-sharing; information exchange and strengthening links between genebanks and breeding programmes. It has a major focus on capacity building. Asia and the Pacific Almost all of the subregional networks in the Asia and the Pacific region concerned with PGRFA have been initiated and/or are being facilitated by Bioversity International, in collaboration with FAO and the main regional association for agricultural research, the Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions (APAARI). 12 The latter has also been active in its own right in supporting activities on PGRFA and published a regional report on PGR-related activities in 2000, provided a neutral platform for discussion of policy related issues and endorsed the regional PGRFA conservation strategy for Asia under the GCDT initiative. Although most of the subregional PGRFA networks were established prior to the publication of the first SoW report, some, particularly the South Asia Network on Plant Genetic Resources (SANPGR), have made very substantial progress in recent years and a new network has been established for the Pacific. • the Regional Network for Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources in East Asia (EA-PGR): 13 EA-PGR promotes collaboration among its five member countries 14 in collecting, conservation, exchange, documentation/information and training. Major accomplishments since the first SoW report was published have included: (i) establishing the CAAS China-Bioversity Centre of Excellence for training on in vitro conservation, cryopreservation and molecular characterization; (ii) developing a subregional strategy as part of the overall South, Southeast and East Asia (SSEEA) regional conservation strategy; (iii) joint collecting, characterization and evaluation of millets in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Mongolia; (iv) joint studies on genetic diversity of adzuki bean, Job’s tears and perilla in China, Japan and the Republic of Korea; and (v) establishing a network web site; • the Pacific Agricultural Plant Genetic Resources Network (PAPGREN): 15 Established in 2001, PAPGREN comprises 13 nations 16 and is coordinated by the Land Resources Division of the SPC, Suva, Fiji in collaboration with Bioversity International. In addition to convening a number of key meetings and workshops, major accomplishments have included: (i) developing a directory of PGR collections; (ii) drawing up a regional conservation strategy; (iii) providing advice on policy issues; (iv) supporting emergency collecting and characterization; (v) public awareness activities; and (vi) developing a web site and blog; 147

CHAPTER 6 • the Regional Cooperation in South East Asia for PGR (RECSEA-PGR): 17 Established in 1993, RECSEA-PGR remained active in the period following the publication of the first SoW report, although activities have tended to be somewhat curtailed in recent years due to a lack of funding as Malaysia and Thailand indicate in their country report. The network, which comprises seven member countries, 18 aims to build and enhance national research capacity in Southeast Asia through collaboration in areas such as policy, database development and sharing information and expertise. RECSEA-PGR’s major recent accomplishments have included inputs to the SSEEA regional conservation strategy under the GCDT initiative and the setting up of a PGR Policy Forum together with APAARI, aimed at drafting an SMTA applicable to all materials of common interest that are not included within Annex 1 of the ITPGRFA; • SANPGR: 19 Accomplishments of this sixcountry 20 network over the past decade have included: (i) training on seed genebank management, GMS software and the genetic resources of tropical fruits; (ii) establishing a regional Centre of Excellence for training on in vitro conservation and cryopreservation at NBPGR, India; (iii) promoting post-graduate courses on PGR in India and Sri Lanka; (iv) establishing a web site; (v) developing the South Asia component of the SSEEA regional PGRFA conservation strategy; and (vi) the joint evaluation of finger millet in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal. Several meetings have been held and the proceedings published. A Steering Committee was constituted in 2002 to oversee network activities and the implementation of action plans. Europe Collaboration among European PGR programmes has further strengthened since the publication of the first SoW report, as a result of increased support from many individual countries as well as from the European Union. Bioversity International has continued to host 148 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA the secretariats of the ECPGR, the main network on PGRFA in Europe, as well as the European Forest Genetic Resources Network (EUFORGEN). In addition to ECPGR, the Nordic countries have a collaborative programme on genetic resources (NordGen) that includes a common genebank and a new networking programme on PGRFA was established in 2004 in Southeastern Europe. • ECPGR: 21 ECPGR is a joint programme of about forty European countries 22 that aims to facilitate the conservation and use of PGRFA in Europe and strengthen links between Europe and elsewhere in the world. It is structured into nine networks (six crop networks and three thematic networks) and implements activities through working groups and task forces. ECPGR collaborates with regional programmes such as the European System of Cooperative Research Networks on Agriculture (ESCORENA). ECPGR members are currently setting up AEGIS, 23 a programme that aims to rationalize collections (see Section 7.3.3.2) as well as EURISCO, 24 a globally accessible catalogue, launched in 2003, that contains information on more than 1.1 million accessions; • NordGen: 25 NordGen is an institution under the Nordic Council of Ministers. 26 It was established in 2008 through a merger of the Nordic Gene Bank, the Nordic Gene Bank for Farm Animals and the Nordic Council for Forest Reproductive Material; • the South East European Development Network on Plant Genetic Resources (SeedNet): This network which was set up in 2004 operates in Southeast European countries and aims to promote the longterm conservation and use of PGR through creation of national programmes and gene bank facilities. The core of the network consists of a number of crop-specific and thematic working groups. Near East The Near East region, which includes Central Asia, the Caucasus, West Asia and North Africa (WANA), has seen both good progress and also some stagnation in the period since the first SoW report was published. In Central Asia and the Caucasus, the regional PGRFA network CACN-PGR has been brought under

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    The designations employed and the p

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT the

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 3

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION F

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION C

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION N

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION t

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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