Views
5 years ago

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF REGIONAL

THE STATE OF REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION the auspices of the Central Asia and the Caucasus Association of Agricultural Research Institutions (CACAARI), 27 which was established in 2004. • the Central Asian and Caucasian Network on Plant Genetic Resources (CACN-PGR): 28 This network, established in 1999, involves eight countries 29 and has nine crop working groups. It is backstopped jointly by ICARDA and Bioversity International. A regional database has been set up that includes passport data for almost 120 000 accessions and a regional PGR strategy has been developed with support from the GCDT; • the West Asia and North Africa Genetic Resources Network (WANANET): WANANET was originally set up as a regional network to help strengthen PGRFA activities in WANA. Unfortunately, due to lack of resources it is currently defunct. A regional strategy for the conservation of PGRFA was developed in 2006 under the GCDT initiative, with technical support from ICARDA and Bioversity International, that highlighted the importance of networking in the region. The Association of Agricultural Research Institution in the Near East and North Africa (AARINENA) 30 has established a new network on PGR in 2008. 6.2.2 Crop-specific networks There is a vast range of international crop-specific networks operating regionally or globally. Most have some aspect of crop improvement as their primary focus, although they may also involve the conservation of PGRFA. They range from relatively straightforward mechanisms for distributing breeding materials, multilocation testing and the sharing of information and results, to fully collaborative research networks in which the comparative advantages of the participating institutions are brought to bear on a common problem or issue. Many of the networks that have international germplasm distribution and collaborative testing as their primary focus are coordinated by the IARCs and some of these are mentioned in the section on international organizations below. A few examples are given here of new, crop-specific networks that have come into existence or have developed significantly since the first SoW report was published. The International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) 31 was established in 1997 to promote the improved production, processing and trade of bamboo and rattan. INBAR facilitates a global network of partners from the government, private and nonprofit sectors in over 50 countries. The conservation and sustainable use of bamboo and rattan genetic resources are an important part of INBAR’s programme. In 2006, the CacaoNet 32 was launched as a network of institutions that collaborate in the conservation and use of cacao genetic resources. Its membership includes a wide range of international and regional public institutions as well as the Biscuit, Cake, Chocolate and Confectionery Association (BCCCA), the Cocoa Producers Alliance (COPAL), the International Cocoa Organization (ICCO), the International Group for the Genetic Improvement of Cocoa (INGENIC) and the World Cocoa Foundation (WCF). The INIBAP established a number of regional networks on banana and plantain in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Since the first SoW report was published, a number of important changes have taken place. The Réseau Musa pour l’Afrique Centrale et Occidentale (MUSACO) was founded in 1997 at the invitation of the CORAF/WECARD and the Banana Research Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (BARNESA) became a network under the auspices of ASARECA. The Latin America and Caribbean Network (LACNET) was renamed the Plantain and Banana Research and Development Network for Latin America and the Caribbean (MUSALAC) 33 in 2000 and now operates under FORAGRO. Likewise, the INIBAP Asia-Pacific Network (ASPNET) was renamed the Banana Asia Pacific Network (BAPNET) 34 in 2002 and now operates under the auspices of APAARI. INIBAP itself was formally incorporated, together with the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), within Bioversity International in 2006. Within the Americas, the Latin American/Caribbean Consortium on Cassava Research and Development (CLAYUCA) 35 was established in 1999 as a regional mechanism to facilitate cassava research and development through the participation of stakeholders from both the private and public sectors. Located on CIAT’s campus in Colombia, CLAYUCA is also building links between Latin America and the Caribbean 149

CHAPTER 6 and African countries for technology development, training, germplasm distribution and the dissemination of information. Within the Near East, AARINENA has sponsored various crop-specific initiatives on PGRFA since 1996, including convening networks on date palm, olive and medicinal plants. The Interregional Network on Cotton in Asia and North Africa (INCANA) was established in 2002 with support from GFAR, AARINENA, APAARI, CACAARI, ICARDA and the Agricultural Research and Education Organization (AREO), the Islamic Republic of Iran. In addition, several new crop networks have been established at the global level that aim to generate and share genomic information on particular crops or groups of crops. These include, for example, the International Coffee Genome Network (ICGN) 37 and the collaborative international Rice Genome Sequencing Project. 6.2.3 Thematic networks As indicated above, many new thematic networks have been established in recent years that carry out cooperative activities relating to PGRFA. Again, these are far too numerous to cover in detail and just a few examples are presented here of networks that are either new or have undergone significant change since 1996. Since 2001, three new networks have been established specifically to promote and support the development of the seed sector in Africa: the Africa Seed Network (ASN), 38 the SADC Seed Security Network (SSSN) 39 and the West Africa Seed Network (WASNET). In 2001, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) was created which, among other initiatives, promoted the establishment of four biosciences networks: Biosciences East and Central Africa (BECA), the West Africa Biosciences Network (WABNET), the South African Network for Biosciences (SANBio), as well as the North Africa Biosciences Network (NABNET). SANBio, as mentioned in the Zimbabwe country report, has been particularly active in the area of PGRFA, having devoted attention to creating facilities for conserving vegetatively propagated crops, molecular characterization and promoting regional collaboration. 150 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA Within the Americas, new thematic networks established since 1996 include: the Network on Plant Biotechnology in Latin American and the Caribbean (REDBIO) which promotes the use of biotechnology for crop improvement and genetic conservation and the Agricultural Innovation Network (RedSICTA), a networking project of IICA in cooperation with the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). A key aim of RedSICTA is to improve seed production in Latin America and the Caribbean as illustrated in the Nicaragua country report. NGOs have also played a greater role over the last ten years in networking. The Community Biodiversity Development Conservation (CBDC) 40 programme, for example, which involves a number of countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia, is spearheaded by several local and international NGOs. CBDC brings governmental institutions and NGOs together at the global, regional and national level and has major focus on the conservation, use, marketing and where necessary, restoration of traditional germplasm resources. 6.3 International organizations and associations with programmes on PGRFA There is a large range of international and regional associations that, while not exclusively focused on PGRFA, nevertheless have significant programmes that involve PGR. Arguably, the two largest and most important of these are FAO and the CGIAR and developments in each of these are given in the following sections. This is followed by a brief consideration of developments that have taken place since the first SoW report in other international and regional organizations, in international fora and associations, in bilateral arrangements and within the NGO community. 6.3.1 FAO’s initiatives on PGRFA FAO has remained very active in promoting and supporting activities on PGRFA since the first SoW report was published and it has made significant progress in a number of key areas. It provides

  • Page 1 and 2:

    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

  • Page 3 and 4:

    The designations employed and the p

  • Page 5 and 6:

    I hope and trust that the informati

  • Page 7 and 8:

    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

  • Page 9 and 10:

    5.5 Changes since the first State o

  • Page 11 and 12:

    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

  • Page 13 and 14:

    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

  • Page 15 and 16:

    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

  • Page 17 and 18:

    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

  • Page 20 and 21:

    Executive summary �his report des

  • Page 22 and 23:

    documentation and characterization

  • Page 24 and 25:

    Given the high level of interdepend

  • Page 28:

    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

  • Page 31 and 32:

    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

  • Page 33 and 34:

    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

  • Page 35 and 36:

    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

  • Page 37 and 38:

    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

  • Page 39 and 40:

    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

  • Page 41 and 42:

    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

  • Page 43 and 44:

    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

  • Page 45 and 46:

    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

  • Page 47 and 48:

    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

  • Page 49 and 50:

    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

  • Page 51 and 52:

    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

  • Page 53:

    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

  • Page 58 and 59:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

  • Page 60 and 61:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

  • Page 62 and 63:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT the

  • Page 64 and 65:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT TAB

  • Page 66 and 67:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT TAB

  • Page 68 and 69:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT com

  • Page 70 and 71:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT on

  • Page 72 and 73:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT has

  • Page 74 and 75:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 12

  • Page 76 and 77:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 53

  • Page 78:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

  • Page 82 and 83:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 3

  • Page 84 and 85:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION F

  • Page 86 and 87:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

  • Page 88 and 89:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION t

  • Page 90 and 91:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

  • Page 92 and 93:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

  • Page 94 and 95:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION U

  • Page 96 and 97:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

  • Page 98 and 99:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION u

  • Page 100 and 101:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

  • Page 102 and 103:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION l

  • Page 104 and 105:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

  • Page 106 and 107:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION p

  • Page 108 and 109:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

  • Page 110 and 111:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION C

  • Page 112 and 113:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION N

  • Page 114 and 115:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION t

  • Page 116 and 117:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

  • Page 120:

    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

  • Page 123 and 124:

    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

  • Page 125 and 126: 98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize
  • Page 127 and 128: CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A
  • Page 129 and 130: CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and
  • Page 131 and 132: CHAPTER 4 improvement. While the fi
  • Page 133 and 134: CHAPTER 4 exchange of material and
  • Page 135 and 136: CHAPTER 4 4.7.4 Cooperation and lin
  • Page 137 and 138: CHAPTER 4 seed legislation to meet
  • Page 139 and 140: CHAPTER 4 A number of countries 36
  • Page 141 and 142: CHAPTER 4 Different plants are rich
  • Page 143 and 144: CHAPTER 4 breeding activities over
  • Page 145 and 146: 118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.
  • Page 148: Chapter 5 The state of national pro
  • Page 151 and 152: CHAPTER 5 national system based on
  • Page 153 and 154: CHAPTER 5 involvement vary from the
  • Page 155 and 156: CHAPTER 5 of Bolivia, for example,
  • Page 157 and 158: CHAPTER 5 In some countries includi
  • Page 159 and 160: CHAPTER 5 Africa, Burkina Faso, Cam
  • Page 161 and 162: CHAPTER 5 Box 5.2 India’s Protect
  • Page 163 and 164: CHAPTER 5 the adoption of national
  • Page 165 and 166: 138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http
  • Page 168: Chapter 6 The state of regional and
  • Page 171 and 172: CHAPTER 6 a) those that focus on co
  • Page 173 and 174: 146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to
  • Page 175: CHAPTER 6 • the Regional Cooperat
  • Page 179 and 180: CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR Syst
  • Page 181 and 182: CHAPTER 6 • ICBA: 64 ICBA was est
  • Page 183 and 184: CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ
  • Page 185 and 186: CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was
  • Page 187 and 188: 160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.
  • Page 190: Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R
  • Page 193 and 194: CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u
  • Page 195 and 196: CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con
  • Page 197 and 198: 170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON
  • Page 199 and 200: CHAPTER 7 has been adapted to incor
  • Page 201 and 202: CHAPTER 7 changes after the initial
  • Page 203 and 204: CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far
  • Page 205: 178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the
  • Page 210 and 211: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 212 and 213: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 214 and 215: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 216 and 217: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 218 and 219: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 220 and 221: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 222 and 223: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 224 and 225: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 226 and 227:

    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

  • Page 228:

    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

  • Page 232 and 233:

    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

  • Page 234 and 235:

    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

  • Page 238:

    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

  • Page 241:

    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

  • Page 246 and 247:

    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

  • Page 248 and 249:

    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

  • Page 250 and 251:

    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

  • Page 252 and 253:

    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

  • Page 254 and 255:

    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

  • Page 256 and 257:

    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

  • Page 258 and 259:

    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

  • Page 260 and 261:

    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

  • Page 262 and 263:

    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

  • Page 264 and 265:

    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

  • Page 266:

    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

  • Page 270 and 271:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 272 and 273:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 274 and 275:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 276 and 277:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 278 and 279:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 280 and 281:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 282 and 283:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 284 and 285:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 286 and 287:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 288 and 289:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 290 and 291:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 292 and 293:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 294 and 295:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 296 and 297:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 298 and 299:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 300 and 301:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 302 and 303:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 304 and 305:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 306 and 307:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 308 and 309:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 310:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 314 and 315:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 316 and 317:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 318 and 319:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 320 and 321:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 322 and 323:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 324 and 325:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 326 and 327:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 328 and 329:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 332:

    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

  • Page 335 and 336:

    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

  • Page 337 and 338:

    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

  • Page 339 and 340:

    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

  • Page 341 and 342:

    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

  • Page 343 and 344:

    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

  • Page 345 and 346:

    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

  • Page 347 and 348:

    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

  • Page 349 and 350:

    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

  • Page 351 and 352:

    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

  • Page 353 and 354:

    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

  • Page 355 and 356:

    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

  • Page 357 and 358:

    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

  • Page 359 and 360:

    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

  • Page 361 and 362:

    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

  • Page 363 and 364:

    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

  • Page 365 and 366:

    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

  • Page 367 and 368:

    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

  • Page 369 and 370:

    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

  • Page 371 and 372:

    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

  • Page 373 and 374:

    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

  • Page 375 and 376:

    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

  • Page 377 and 378:

    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

  • Page 379 and 380:

    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

  • Page 381 and 382:

    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

  • Page 383 and 384:

    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

  • Page 385 and 386:

    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

  • Page 387 and 388:

    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

  • Page 389 and 390:

    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

  • Page 391 and 392:

    NISM National Information Sharing M

  • Page 393 and 394:

    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

  • Page 395 and 396:

    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

  • Page 397:

    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture - FAO
The State of Food and Agriculture - FAO
ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES RESSOURCES ... - FAO
The State of Food and Agriculture 2013 - FAO
indian society of plant genetic resources - Bioversity International
THE NATIONAL ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES CENTRE ... - FAO
The state of food and agriculture, 1968 - FAO
New Genetics, Food and Agriculture - International Council for Science
The Right to Food and Access to Natural Resources - FAO
Food Security and Agricultural Mitigation in Developing ... - FAO
Genetically Modified Plants for Food Use and Human ... - Guardian
The State of the World's Land and Water Resources for Food ... - FAO
ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES RESSOURCES ... - FAO
GROWING FOOD - FAO
varieties creation and conservation of plant genetic resources
Conservation Agriculture and Sustainable Crop Intensification ... - FAO
Food wastage footprint: Impacts on natural resources ... - FAO
New Genetics, Food and Agriculture: Scientific ... - ArgenBio
Conservation agriculture as practised in Kenya: two case ... - FAO
Genetic Modified Food - State Agriculture and Rural Leaders
Land tenure and international investments in agriculture - FAO
food insecurity in the world - FAO
BIODIPLOMACY -- Genetic Resources and International Relations
Climate change, water and food security - FAO
Explanatory Guide to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic - IUCN
Agriculture Sector Bulletin Summer 2011 [pdf] - FAO
Global food losses and food waste - FAO