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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF REGIONAL

THE STATE OF REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION administrative, scientific and technical support to the work of both the secretariat of the CGRFA and the secretariat of the ITPGRFA. The CGRFA, established as an intergovernmental forum in 1983, has overseen the creation and development of the Global System for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of PGR. This system, managed and coordinated by FAO, aims to ensure the safe conservation and promote the availability and sustainable use of PGR. The first SoW report described the major elements of the system and only the most significant developments are reported below. The GPA provides the overall framework or blueprint for the Global System and the periodic SoW reports provide a mechanism for monitoring progress and evaluating the system. The basic agreement and intergovernmental policy instrument that underpinned the development of the Global System was, until 2004, the International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. This was superseded when the ITPGRFA came into force. The ITPGRFA is covered in considerable detail in Section 7.2.1 and is only mentioned briefly below: • CGRFA: 41 It is a forum for governments to discuss and negotiate matters relevant to genetic resources for food and agriculture. It reviews and advises FAO on policy matters, programmes and activities. Currently, 168 states and the European Union are members of the CGRFA, which is the only intergovernmental body that specifically deals with all components of biological diversity for food and agriculture. The CGRFA started out as the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources and only in 1995 took on responsibility for other components of agricultural biodiversity. In 1997, recognizing the separate needs of the different components, the CGRFA established two international technical working groups, one on PGR and the other on animal genetic resources. The CGRFA provided the forum for the successful negotiation of the ITPGRFA, a legally-binding international agreement that came into force in June 2004 (see Section 7.2.1). The CGRFA acted as the Interim Committee for the ITPGRFA until 2006, when its own Governing Body was established. The CGRFA also developed the first GPA and is responsible for monitoring its implementation. At its Eleventh Regular Session in June 2007, the CGRFA adopted a rolling ten-year programme of work, which foresees the publication of the first report on the SoW’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture and the integration of the ecosystem approach into biodiversity management in agriculture, forestry and fisheries; • International Network of Ex Situ Collections: As described in the first SoW report, in 1994, eleven IARCs of the CGIAR signed agreements with FAO, acting for the CGRFA, bringing their ex situ germplasm collections within the International Network of Ex Situ Collections. These agreements and indeed the International Network as a whole, were superseded in 2006 when the centres signed further agreements with FAO, this time acting on behalf of the Governing Body of the ITPGRFA. The new agreements bring all the ex situ collections of PGRFA held by the centres (approximately 650 000 accessions of the world’s most important crops) within the MLS of ABS of the ITPGRFA; • GIPB: 42 launched in 2006, GIPB is an initiative whose primary aim is to strengthen and support the capacity of developing countries to conduct and benefit from plant breeding. It is a partnership that involves many agricultural research, education and development institutions. Further information on GIPB can be found in Sections 4.4 and 7.3.2; • Agreement with the CBD: one area in which significant progress has been made is in the strengthening of the relationship with the CBD. A Memorandum of Cooperation was signed between FAO and the CBD in 2006, putting in place a practical framework for increased synergy between the two organizations in the area of biodiversity of relevance to food and agriculture. 6.3.2 The International Agricultural Research Centres of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research 43 The first SoW report described the then 16 - now 15 44 - IARCs supported by the CGIAR. Over the past 151

CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR System has been going through a major process of reform in its vision, governance, funding and partnerships 45 with the aim of achieving a more focused research agenda, greater coherence among the centres and increased collaboration with a wider range of partners. However, the management of the genetic resources collections is expected to remain a high priority for the system as are the genetic improvement of those food crops that are of greatest importance to the poor in the developing world. Of the 15 centres, 11 have collections of PGRFA and are involved in one way or another with longterm conservation and plant genetic improvement (see Chapter 3). They not only make available material from their genebanks but also distribute to partners in both developing and developed countries, nurseries of advanced breeding lines, early generation segregating populations, parental materials, and lines with special characteristics (see Section 4.2). At the system level, there has been a number of significant developments since the first SoW report was published. These include greater emphasis on the breeding programmes on biotechnological tools and methods, including genomics, proteomics, MAS and the like; greater attention to participatory breeding approaches; major new partnership programmes for crop genetic improvement such as the GCP and Harvest Plus (see Section 4.7.4 and Box 4.1); and a large, system-wide initiative, now in its second phase, that aims to upgrade the collections and genebank facilities, known as “Collective Action for the Rehabilitation of Global Public Goods in the CGIAR Genetic Resources System”. 46 The centres have also continued to be heavily involved on an individual basis in a wide range of activities on the conservation and use of PGRFA. A large percentage of these involve international collaboration. By way of illustration, a few of many possible examples are given below: • Africa Rice Center (formerly WARDA), 47 works with national programmes throughout Africa and provides leadership for the multicountry rice research network in West and Central Africa (ROCARIZ); • Bioversity International (formerly IPGRI and INIBAP) 48 is exclusively devoted to agricultural biodiversity. It adopted a new strategy in 2006 that, 152 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA while maintaining a focus on conservation, also gives greater prominence to the sustainable use of genetic resources for human well-being. Bioversity International is heavily involved with a large number of networks and partnership arrangements, e.g. it maintains an active association with all of the networks listed in Section 6.2.1; • CIAT 49 and ILRI 50 both have major collections of tropical forages and CIAT has the largest collections in the world of cassava and beans. It facilitates a number of networks, for example the Pan-African Bean Research Alliance (PABRA); • CIMMYT 51 maintains international germplasm collections of wheat and maize and facilitates crop improvement networks for both crops. It also plays a leading role in the Asian Maize Biotechnology Network; • CIP 52 provides leadership for a number of regional networks on potato and/or, sweet potato as well as the Potato Gene Engineering Network (PotatoGENE); • ICARDA 53 has helped establish genebanks in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Morocco, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The significant contribution of ICARDA in the establishment of genebanks is recognized and described in the country reports of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Morocco, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan; • ICRISAT 54 works closely with national programmes in both Asia and Africa to promote germplasm conservation, enhancement and use. It plays a leadership role in the CLAN; • IITA 55 has important collections of many tropical crops and works in close collaboration with national programmes, networks and other institutions throughout Sub-Saharan Africa; • IRRI 56 convenes the International Network for the Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) 57 and the Council for Partnerships on Rice Research in Asia (CORRA); 58 • World Agroforestry Center, (formerly ICRAF), has a Genetic Resources Unit that partners with many institutions throughout Africa and beyond, in the conservation and evaluation of species for agroforestry systems.

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 3

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION F

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION N

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION t

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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