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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF REGIONAL

THE STATE OF REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION As an adjunct to the work of the individual centres, the SGRP has been set up as a mechanism to help coordinate policies, strategies and activities across the system. SGRP aims to optimize CGIAR’s efforts in five thematic areas: genetic resources policy; public awareness; information; knowledge and technology development; and capacity building. It has provided a focus for the technical input of the CGIAR to the negotiating process of the ITPGRFA and for negotiating the agreements with FAO bringing the centres’ collections under the purview of the ITPGRFA. In 2000, the CGIAR established the Central Advisory Service on Intellectual Property (CAS-IP) to assist the centres in managing their intellectual assets in order to maximize public benefit. 6.3.3 Other international and regional research and development institutions There are a very large number of regional and international organizations involved in one way or another with the conservation and use of PGRFA. They range from highly technical international research institutes to the SGSV, a major new safety back-up facility for the storage of duplicate samples of accessions held in seed collections (see Section 3.5). Just five examples of regional and international institutions are given below: two have been established since the first SoW report was published, two are important agricultural research institutions that have gone through significant changes over recent years and one, the CBD, has significantly expanded its work related to PGRFA: • World Vegetable Centre (formerly AVRDC): 59 headquartered in Asia, the World Vegetable Center maintains collections of many important vegetable species and makes them and materials arising from its breeding programmes, available to the world community in a similar way to those of the CGIAR centres. Since the first SoW report was published it has greatly expanded its activities in other continents, especially in Africa. It has set up and supported a large number of different regional and international networks; • CATIE: 60 CATIE is an intergovernmental regional research and higher education centre located in Costa Rica. While it seeks primarily to serve its member countries, 61 it maintains germplasm collections of global importance. Since the publication of the first SoW report, CATIE has signed agreements with FAO bringing the collections within the International Network of Ex Situ Collections (see above). Both conventional seed as well as extensive field collections are maintained, with some of the most important ones being cacao (Theobroma spp.), coffee (Coffea spp.), peach palm (Bactris spp.), peppers (Capsicum spp.), cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae) and tomato (Lycopersicon spp.); • CBD: 62 in November 1996, the third Conference of the Parties to the CBD adopted Decision III/11: ‘Conservation and sustainable use of agricultural biological diversity’, which, inter alia, established a multi-year programme of activities on agricultural biological diversity with the following goals: • promote the positive effects and mitigate the negative impacts of agricultural practices on biological diversity in agro-ecosystems and their interface with other ecosystems; • promote the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources of actual or potential value for food and agriculture; • promote the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. PGRFA are also important in a number of the crosscutting programmes of work of the CBD including the ecosystem approach, climate change and biodiversity, invasive alien species, the GSPC and ABS (see Chapter 7). In addition, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, which came into force in 2003, has major implications for the conservation, management and use of PGRFA and in particular, the development and dissemination of GM-crop varieties. • Crops for the Future: 63 created in 2008 as a result of a merger between the International Centre for Underutilized Crops and the Global Facilitation Unit for Underutilized Species, Crops for the Future seeks to promote and backstop research on those neglected and underutilized species which are considered to have a high potential for contributing to food security, poverty alleviation and protecting the environment; 153

CHAPTER 6 • ICBA: 64 ICBA was established in 1999 to address growing concerns about water availability and quality, initially in the WANA region but more recently at the global level as well. ICBA maintains and distributes an international germplasm collection comprising more that 9 400 accessions of some 220 saline and drought-tolerant species of crops and forages. 6.3.4 International and regional fora and associations Regional and international associations and fora are becoming an increasingly important feature of international cooperation throughout the world, and in almost all areas of society. In fields related to agriculture, and that include activities on PGRFA, they include industry associations such as the ISF 65 and CropLife International; 66 farmers’ organizations such as the International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP); 67 international academic institutions such as the Third World Academy of Science (TWAS); 68 and environmental networks such as the IUCN. 69 The regional associations or fora on agricultural research for development are mentioned in Section 6.2. A particularly significant development since the first SoW report was published was the creation of GFAR in 1999. 70 GFAR is an initiative that provides a neutral platform to promote discussion and collaboration among various stakeholder groups concerned with agricultural research for development. The regional associations and fora are key members of GFAR as are FAO, the CGIAR, farmers’ organizations (represented on the Steering Committee by IFAP), civil society groups, private sector organizations, donors and others. GFAR held its first international conference in Dresden, Germany, in 2000, which resulted in the Dresden Declaration that identified genetic resources management and biotechnology as one of GFAR’s four priority areas. Participants also drafted a separate declaration specifically on PGR that urged governments to meet their obligations to different international instruments, legislation and policies relating to PGRFA. GFAR has also been an active partner of FAO and the CGIAR in facilitating many activities relating to the GPA. 154 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA 6.3.5 Bilateral cooperation A large number of different national institutions, in both developing and developed countries, have international programmes in the area of PGRFA and these have increased significantly since the first SoW report was published, as is evident from the country reports. Such bilateral arrangements are far too numerous to list comprehensively and it is only possible to give a very general overview here. Institutions involved in regional and international bilateral activities include universities, national plant breeding and research institutes, genebanks, botanical gardens, etc. Several developed countries have specialized governmental organizations devoted to providing technical assistance to developing countries. Many of these are involved in agricultural research and development, and initiatives involving the conservation and sustainable use of PGRFA have generally increased over the past decade. Examples include: the Cirad in France, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) in Germany, the Istituto Agronomico per l’Oltremare (IAO) in Italy and the Japan International Research Centre for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS). The growing importance of South-South Cooperation is pointed out in a number of country reports. Increasingly, institutions in developing countries are taking on international responsibilities, within the context of regional and international networks as well as in their own right. This is particularly true of universities and two examples are given in Chapter 4 Box 4.1: the ACCI established by the University of KwaZulu-Natal and the WACCI established by the University of Ghana. Some government institutions in developing countries are also expanding their international operations, for example the CAAS is increasingly posting staff overseas, and Embrapa has set up offices/laboratories in France, Ghana, the Netherlands, the Republic of Korea and the United States of America. 6.3.6 Non-governmental organizations Over the last ten years, the involvement of NGOs has increased substantially in various aspects of PGRFA

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT the

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT TAB

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT TAB

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 53

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 3

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION F

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION t

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION U

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION p

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION C

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION N

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION t

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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