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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF REGIONAL

THE STATE OF REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION and, as with other types of institutions, it is impossible to inventory them all. While activities have largely taken place at the national level, international activities have also expanded. For example, NGOs such as the Gene Campaign in India, the Action Group on Erosion Technology and Concentration (ETC Group) and Grain, among many others, were particularly active internationally when negotiations were in process for the ITPGRFA and in the context of various initiatives of the CBD such as those relating to indigenous knowledge and ABS. Since the first SoW report was published, a number of new national NGOs have been set up concerned with conserving old varieties, especially ‘heritage’ or ‘heirloom’ varieties of fruits and vegetables. This has in turn, led to the creation of umbrella organizations and networks such as Safeguard for Agricultural Varieties in Europe (SAVE Foundation). Botanical gardens have also grown in number and strength over the past decade (see Section 3.9) and this has been reflected in the growth in membership of the umbrella organization, BGCI, which today includes some 700 members from almost 120 countries. In addition to NGOs that focus primarily on plant diversity such as those previously mentioned, many developmental NGOs, both national and international, are also involved in the conservation and use of PGRFA, for example through projects that promote the management of PGRFA on farm or that promote traditional and high value crops and value added products. In an attempt to promote greater collaboration among such NGOs, a number of regional and international networks have been established, or expanded in scope, since the first SoW report was published. These include, for example, the Asian NGO Coalition for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (ANGOC) and the CBDC mentioned earlier. 6.4 International and regional agreements Arguably the most important international events associated with PGRFA since the publication of the first SoW report was the adoption in 2001 and entry into force in 2004 of the ITPGRFA. 71 As of August 2010, the ITPGRFA had been ratified by 125 countries and the European Union. Article 1.1 of the ITPGRFA states its objectives as, “the conservation and sustainable use of PGR for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use, in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity, for sustainable agriculture and food security.” The ITPGRFA covers all PGRFA and promotes, inter alia: conservation, exploration, collection, characterization, evaluation and sustainable use. It promotes action at the national level as well as international cooperation and technical assistance. One article is devoted to Farmers’ Rights (see Sections 5.4.4 and 7.4) and a centrepiece of the ITPGRFA is the creation of an MLS for ABS that covers the 35 food crops and 29 forage genera listed in Annex 1 of the ITPGRFA. Developments with respect to ABS are described in detail in Chapter 7. The ITPGRFA also promotes the implementation of the GPA and recognizes several other supporting components including the ex situ collections held by the IARCs, international PGR networks and the global information system on PGRFA. The Contracting Parties undertake to implement a funding strategy for the implementation of the ITPGRFA with the objective of enhancing the availability, transparency, efficiency and effectiveness of the provision of financial resources to implement activities under the ITPGRFA. In addition to the ITPGRFA, a trend towards stronger regional cooperation in matters relating to PGRFA is also reflected in the growing number of regional agreements covering such areas as conservation, PVP, access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing. One area that has seen particular progress is phytosanitary regulations and these are covered separately below. In Africa, regional agreements have been signed on PVP, 72 access and benefit-sharing, Farmers’ Rights, 73 the conservation of natural resources, 74 and safety in the application of biotechnology. 75 In the Americas, the Andean Community countries have adopted several regional agreements regarding PGR, two of the most important being the 1996 Decision 391 on a Common Regime on Access to Genetic Resources and the 1993 Decision 345 on Common Provisions on the Protection of the Rights of Breeders of New Plant 155

CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central American countries have also drafted an agreement on access to genetic and biochemical resources and related traditional knowledge. In Asia, in 2000, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries agreed on a framework on access to biological and genetic resources and in 1999 the CIS countries adopted a multilateral agreement on cooperation in the sphere of conservation and management of cultivated PGR. In 2001, they also adopted an agreement on the legal protection of plant varieties. In Europe, the European Union has adopted numerous European Community regulations and directives regulating such areas as seed production and distribution, IP and biosafety. National laws on PBR have, for example, been harmonized and a European Commission variety register established. 76 In the Nordic countries, the Nordic Council of Ministers adopted a Ministerial Declaration on Access and Rights to Genetic Resources in 2003. 6.4.1 Regional and international collaboration regarding phytosanitary issues In 1997, a new text of the IPPC 77 was adopted. The number of members of IPPC has also risen considerably over the last decade, with 69 countries and the European Union out of the total membership of 172 having joined since 1996. The 1997 revision of the IPPC was substantial and aimed to bring it up to date with current phytosanitary practices and in line with the concepts contained in the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement. 78 In addition to its implications for international trade, the 1997 text of the IPPC promotes the harmonization of phytosanitary measures and creates a procedure to develop International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. It also introduces new phytosanitary concepts such as the designation of pest-free areas, the phytosanitary security of export consignments after certification and pest risk analysis. The role of regional plant protection organizations (RPPOs) was also strengthened in 1997. In addition to promoting the objectives of the IPPC, RPPOs act as 156 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA phytosanitary coordinators for their respective regions, promote harmonization of phytosanitary regulations and develop regional standards based on science and in harmony with international standards. The first SoW report lists eight regional organizations; there are now ten. Although established in 1994, the Pacific Plant Protection Organization was not mentioned in the first report and the Near East Plant Protection Organization was established in 2009. 6.5 International funding mechanisms With the growing recognition of the importance and value of PGRFA, an increasing number of donors have provided funds to support activities in this area, some in substantial amounts. One of the most significant funding developments since the first SoW report published was the creation of the GCDT. This specialized funding mechanism, that is also part of the funding mechanism of the ITPGRFA, is described in more detail below, followed by an update on the situation with respect to other multilateral and bilateral funding agencies. • GCDT: 79 it has long been argued that in order to provide long-term sustainable funding for the conservation of PGRFA, an endowment fund is needed. Such a fund would build, preserve and invest its capital assets while using the interest generated to support conservation efforts around the world. With the adoption of the ITPGRFA in 2001, the way was opened up for the creation of such a dedicated funding mechanism, linked to the ITPGRFA. Thus, in 2004, FAO and Bioversity International (acting on behalf of the CGIAR centres) spear-headed the establishment of the GCDT. With its own Executive Board, acting under the overall guidance of the Governing Body of ITPGRFA and the advice of a Donor Council, the GCDT had, by early 2009, obtained total funding pledges amounting to more than USD 150 million. Funds have been provided by national governments, including some developing country governments, multilateral donors, foundations, corporations and private individuals.

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 3

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION C

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION N

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION t

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

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    CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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