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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE OF REGIONAL

THE STATE OF REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION In addition to managing the endowment, the GCDT has also raised funds to support the upgrading of collections and facilities, building human capacity, strengthening information systems, evaluating collections and targeted collecting. Efforts to date have concentrated on ex situ conservation and evaluation and a sizeable initiative has been undertaken, referred to earlier in this chapter, to formulate regional and global collaborative crop conservation strategies. These strategies are used to guide the allocation of the resources made available by the GCDT. In spite of the success of the GCDT, there is still some way to go before the endowment fund can be considered large enough for the interest derived from it to be able to ensure that all the world’s most important PGRFA are securely conserved; • Multilateral and bilateral funding agencies: while it has not been possible to carry out a detailed inventory and analysis of trends in funding for PGRFA, it is evident that the number of agencies which support the conservation and sustainable use of PGRFA, including plant breeding, has grown somewhat since the first SoW report was published. The CGIAR, for example, now numbers some 47 countries as donors (including 21 developing countries) plus 4 foundations and 13 international and regional donor agencies. The large majority of these funders, directly or indirectly support research and development activities involving PGRFA. GEF remains a major funder of in situ conservation, including the conservation of CWR and is the principal funding mechanism of the CBD. The World Bank, a major supporter of the CGIAR, has provided funding not only for the centres’ research programmes but has also provided a substantial injection of funds to bring the genebanks up to standard. Other multilateral funding agencies have also been active in supporting national and international projects and programmes that include activities on PGRFA. These include the Regional Development Banks, European Commission, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Islamic Development Bank (IsDB), Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) OPEC Fund for International Development, UNDP and UNEP. Special mention should also be made of the FONTAGRO, 80 an alliance of Latin American and Caribbean countries together with the Inter- American Development Bank (IDB) and IICA, that provides funds to support agricultural research and innovation in member countries. Established in 1998, the Fund currently supports 65 projects, many of which, have a genetic resources component. The number of foundations involved in funding PGRFA, especially those in the United States of America, has also increased in line with the overall growth of the philanthropic sector. Foundations that are involved in one way or another with funding international activities on PGRFA include the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Gatsby Charitable Trust, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Lillian Goldman Charitable Trust, Kellog Foundation, MacArthur Foundation, Nippon Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, Syngenta Foundation and the United Nations Foundation. In addition to multilateral agencies and foundations, many countries provide bilateral support for projects that include activities on the conservation and use of PGRFA. Most of the national development assistance agencies of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, for example, are active in this area. Some countries also have specialized agencies dedicated to supporting research in developing countries, e.g. the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada, the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), the Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation (SAREC – now incorporated in the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Sida) and the International Foundation for Science (IFS) of Sweden. 6.6 Changes since the first State of the World report was published It is evident from the information presented in this chapter that in general, regional and international collaboration have advanced considerably since 157

CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was published. While some networks are still under-resourced, a number of new institutions and partnerships have been established and old mechanisms strengthened. The ITPGRFA’s MLS provides a mechanism that makes it easier for countries to share the burden of conservation, leading over time to a greater rationalization of collections (including the elimination of inadvertent duplication) and safety backup duplication and making it easier for countries to work together to conserve and use a wider range of genetic diversity. Key changes that have taken place include: • the entry into force of the ITPGRFA in 2004 which marks what is probably the most significant development relating to PGR since the publication of the first SoW report. The ITPGRFA is a legally binding international agreement that promotes the conservation and sustainable use of PGRFA and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use, in harmony with the CBD; • several new regional PGRFA networks have been established, including GRENEWECA for West and Central Africa, NORGEN for North America, CAPGERNET for the Caribbean, PAPGREN for the Pacific, SeedNet for Southwestern Europe and CACN- PGR for the Central Asia and Caucasus region; • other regional PGRFA networks have significantly strengthened their activities, e.g. SANPGR in South Asia, SADC-PGRN in southern Africa and the AEGIS and EURISCO initiatives of the European network ECPGR; • many other regional PGRFA networks have not fared as well. While almost all networks need additional resources, insufficient funding was a major factor in the demise of WANANET and represents a major constraint for most of the networks in the Americas as well as Southeast Asia and West Africa; • several new crop-specific networks have been established that have significant activities on PGRFA. These include, for example, international networks on cacao, the coffee genome, the rice genome and bamboo and rattan. New or reformed regionally-focused crop networks include ones on banana and plantain, cassava in the Americas, cereals and legumes in Asia, cassava in the Pacific and cotton in Asia and North Africa; 158 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA • several new thematic networks have been established, focusing on a range of different topics. For example, a number of networks have been created on biotechnology, both globally (e.g. the GCP) and in many regions. Other topics have included the on-farm management of genetic diversity and seed production. Three seed networks have been established in Africa alone; • FAO supports the secretariats of both the ITPGRFA and the CGRFA. Relationships with the CBD were strengthened with the signing of a joint Memorandum of Cooperation in 2006; • FAO has further strengthened its activities in the PGRFA area, for example, it established the GIPB in 2006; • the international centres of the CGIAR have concluded new agreements with FAO, acting on behalf of the Governing Body of the ITPGRFA, bringing their collections within ITPGRFA’s MLS of ABS. The CGIAR itself has been going through a period of major reform; • the CGIAR centres have continued to work collaboratively with a very large number of partners, especially in developing countries and have continued to make available a wide range of genetic materials. A major programme has been undertaken to upgrade the collections and genebank facilities. In 2000, the CGIAR centres established the CAS-IP; • several other new international institutes have been established that undertake research involving PGRFA. These include Crops for the Future and the ICBA; • the SGSV, which opened in 2008, represents a major new international collaborative initiative to improve the safety of germplasm collections, through providing secure facilities for storing duplicate samples of seed accessions; • another significant development since the first SoW report was published is the creation in 1999 of the GFAR. The Forum promotes discussion and collaboration among different stakeholder groups concerned with agricultural research. GFAR has identified genetic resources management and biotechnology as one its four priority areas; • the trend towards stronger cooperation is reflected in the growing number of regional agreements

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 3

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION C

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION N

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION t

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

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    CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and

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    CHAPTER 4 improvement. While the fi

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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