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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

Executive summary �his

Executive summary �his report describes the current status of the conservation and use of PGRFA throughout the world. It is based on country reports, information gathering processes, regional syntheses, thematic background studies and published scientific literature. It describes the most significant changes that have taken place since the first SoW report was published in 1998 and describes major continuing gaps and needs. The structure follows that of the first SoW report with an additional chapter on the contribution of PGRFA to food security and sustainable agricultural development. 1 The state of diversity The total number of accessions conserved ex situ worldwide has increased by approximately 20 percent since 1996, reaching 7.4 million. While new collecting accounted for at least 240 000 accessions, and possibly considerably more, much of the overall increase is the result of exchange and unplanned duplication. It is estimated that less than 30 percent of the total number of accessions are distinct. While the number of accessions of minor crops and crop wild relatives (CWR) has increased, these categories are still generally underrepresented. There is still a need for greater rationalization among collections globally. Scientific understanding of the on-farm management of genetic diversity has increased. While this approach to the conservation and use of PGRFA is becoming increasingly mainstreamed within national programmes, further efforts are needed in this regard. With the development of new molecular techniques, the amount of data available on genetic diversity has increased dramatically, leading to an improved understanding of issues such as domestication, genetic erosion and genetic vulnerability. The introduction of modern varieties of staple crops appears to have resulted in an overall decrease in genetic diversity, although within the released varieties themselves the data are inconsistent and no overall narrowing of the genetic base can be discerned. The situation regarding genetic erosion in landraces and CWR is equally complex. While many recent studies have confirmed that diversity in farmers’ fields and protected areas has eroded, this is not universally the case. Many country reports expressed continuing concern over the extent of genetic vulnerability and the need for a greater deployment of diversity. However, better techniques and indicators are needed to monitor genetic diversity, to establish baselines and monitor trends. There is evidence of growing public awareness with regard to the importance of genetic diversity, both to meet increasing demands for greater dietary diversity, as well as to meet future production challenges. The increased environmental variability that is expected to result from climate change implies that in the future, farmers and plant breeders will need to be able to access an even wider range of PGRFA than today. xix

xx 2 The state of in situ management Since the first SoW report was published, a large number of surveys and inventories have been carried out in many different countries, both in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Awareness of the importance and value of CWR and of the need to conserve them in situ has increased. A global strategy for CWR conservation and use has been drafted, protocols for the in situ conservation of CWR are now available, and a new Specialist Group on CWR has been established within the International Union for Conservation of Nature/ Species Survival Commission (SSC-IUCN). The number and coverage of protected areas has expanded by approximately 30 percent over the past decade and this has indirectly led to a greater protection of CWR. However, relatively little progress has been achieved in conserving wild PGRFA outside protected areas or in developing sustainable management techniques for plants harvested from the wild. Significant progress has been made in the development of tools and techniques to assess and monitor PGRFA within agricultural production systems. Countries now report a greater understanding of the amount and distribution of genetic diversity in the field, as well as the value of local seed systems in maintaining such diversity. More attention is now being paid in several countries to increasing genetic diversity within production systems as a way to reduce risk, particularly in light of changes in climate, pests and diseases. The number of on-farm management projects carried out with the participation of local stakeholders has increased somewhat and new legal mechanisms have been put in place in several countries to enable farmers to market genetically diverse varieties. There is still a need for more effective policies, legislation and regulations governing the in situ and on-farm management of PGRFA, both inside and outside protected areas, and closer collaboration and coordination are needed between the agriculture and environment sectors. Many aspects of in situ management still require further research and strengthened research capacity is required in such areas as the taxonomy of CWR and the use of molecular tools to conduct inventories and surveys. 3 The state of ex situ conservation Since the publication of the first SoW report, more than 1.4 million accessions have been added to ex situ collections, the large majority of which are in the form of seeds. Fewer countries now account for a larger percentage of the total world ex situ germplasm holdings than was the case in 1996. While many major crops are well-, or even overduplicated, many important collections are inadequately so and hence potentially at risk. For several staple crops, such as wheat and rice, a large part of the genetic diversity is currently represented in collections. However, for many others, considerable gaps remain. Interest in collecting CWR, landraces and neglected and underutilized species, is growing as land-use systems change and environmental concerns increase the likelihood of their erosion. Many countries still lack adequate human capacity, facilities, funds or management systems to meet their ex situ conservation needs and obligations, and as a result, a number of collections are at risk. While significant advances have been made in regeneration in both national and international collections, further work remains to be done. The

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

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    CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and

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    CHAPTER 4 improvement. While the fi

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    CHAPTER 4 seed legislation to meet

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    CHAPTER 4 A number of countries 36

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    Chapter 5 The state of national pro

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    CHAPTER 5 In some countries includi

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    CHAPTER 5 Africa, Burkina Faso, Cam

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    CHAPTER 5 Box 5.2 India’s Protect

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    CHAPTER 6 • the Regional Cooperat

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    CHAPTER 6 and African countries for

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    CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR Syst

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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