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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE CONTRIBUTION OF

THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD SECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT developing countries that experience the greatest increase in demand. Many country reports from all regions have documented the vital role of sound PGRFA management in strengthening national food security and improving livelihoods. In China, for example, varieties of rice, cotton and oilseed crops have all been replaced four to six times throughout the country since 1978, each replacement representing the introduction of a new variety that was an improvement over the one it replaced. Yield increases of 10 percent and more were associated with each replacement and with every 10 percent yield increase, the level of poverty was reduced by six to eight percent. 9 According to Malawi’s country report, adoption of improved varieties of sorghum and cassava has led to higher yields and greater food security at both the household and national level. The increased use of improved varieties has also opened up business opportunities for farmers and the extra income derived from marketing cash crops and value added products, such as cassava snacks, has helped to boost local industry such as the fabrication of cassava processing equipment, increased the use of cassava in livestock feed and provided funds for the development of local on-farm seed programmes. 10 Box 8.2 NERICA Rice Recent experience with crop productivity growth gives reason for both optimism and concern. When growth in yield per unit area has been assessed for key staple crops over the past several decades, it is apparent, particularly for wheat, that productivity growth has levelled off in recent years (see Figure 8.2). Rice and maize productivity have continued to increase on a world scale, although rice yield increases have also levelled off in East and Southeast Asia. In Africa, yields of major crops like rice, maize and wheat are still far below those typically seen in other regions. However, good progress is being made, for example through the development and fast dissemination of NERICA 11 rice (see Box 8.2). While much of the yield increase is attributable to a combination of factors including an increased use of inputs and good weather conditions, a major factor has been the development and dissemination of improved crop varieties. The production of staple food crops remains the largest agricultural subsector in most countries and will continue to play an important role in meeting food security and agricultural development objectives in the future. Sustaining productivity growth in ‘breadbasket’ zones, where new, high-yielding varieties and associated practices have already been widely adopted, will remain an important strategy for meeting future The term NERICA, ‘New Rice for Africa’, is used to refer to the genetic material derived from the successful crossing by WARDA in the early 1990s, of the two species of cultivated rice, the African rice (O. glaberrima Steud.) and the Asian rice (O. sativa L.), to produce progeny that combine the high yielding traits from the Asian parent and the ability to thrive in harsh environments from the African parent. The O. glaberrima accessions used in the breeding programme came from the WARDA genebank and simple biotechnological techniques (anther culture and doubled haploids) were used to overcome sterility barriers with O. sativa. NERICA is a new group of rice varieties that adapt well to rainfed ecologies in Sub-Sahara Africa, where 70 percent of smallholder farmers cultivate rice. The new varieties have a higher yield potential than the traditional varieties grown and have spread at record rates, covering more than 200 000 hectares in West, Central, East and Southern Africa by 2006. The NERICA varieties offer hope to millions of poor rice farmers and consumers. 187

188 CHAPTER 8 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA FIGURE 8.2 Average yields (kg/ha) for a) wheat; b) paddy rice (1961-2007); and c) maize (1997-2007) by major regions (the vertical bar marks the date on which the first SoW report was published) a) Wheat 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 b) Paddy Rice 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 c) Maize 100000 90000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 19751977197919811983 1985 19871989 1991 19931995 19971999 20012003 2005 2007 Source: Faostat (http://faostat.fao.org) World Africa World Africa Northern America Southern Asia Trend — World Trend — Africa Trend — North America Trend — Southern Asia Northern America Eastern Asia Southern Asia South-Eastern Asia Trend — World Trend — Africa Trend — North America Trend — Eastern Asia Trend — Southeastern Asia Trend — Southern Asia World Africa Northern America Southern Asia Europe Poly. (World) Poly. (Africa) Poly. (North America) Poly. (Southern Asia) Poly. (Europe)

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION N

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION t

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

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    CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and

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    CHAPTER 4 improvement. While the fi

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    CHAPTER 4 exchange of material and

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    CHAPTER 4 4.7.4 Cooperation and lin

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    CHAPTER 4 seed legislation to meet

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    CHAPTER 4 A number of countries 36

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    CHAPTER 4 Different plants are rich

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    CHAPTER 4 breeding activities over

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    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

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    Chapter 5 The state of national pro

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    CHAPTER 5 national system based on

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    CHAPTER 5 involvement vary from the

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    CHAPTER 5 of Bolivia, for example,

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    CHAPTER 5 In some countries includi

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    CHAPTER 5 Africa, Burkina Faso, Cam

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    CHAPTER 5 Box 5.2 India’s Protect

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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