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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE CONTRIBUTION OF

THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD SECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT FIGURE 8.4 Cereal yield and poverty in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa Cereals yields, tonnes per hectare 3.5 2.5 1.5 0.5 1984 1987 1990 South Asia 1993 1996 Source: Ravallion, M. & Chen, S. 2004. World Bank, 2006 Poverty incidence, % 60 1999 2002 8.4.1 Modern varieties and economic development Overall, the contribution of modern varieties to agricultural growth and poverty reduction has been very impressive. 35 The impact has been both direct and indirect: high yields generating higher incomes, but also generating employment opportunities and lower food prices. 36 However, in a study across 11 food crops in four regions over the period 1964-2000, 37 it was concluded that the contribution of modern varieties to productivity increases was a ‘global success, but for a number of countries a local failure.’ Many of these countries are located in Sub-Sahara Africa where adoption of improved varieties of cereal crops was very low during the initial phases of the Green Revolution and only began to reach significant levels in the late 1990s (see Figure 8.5). It is interesting to note, in this respect, that the yield growth experienced by Sub-Sahara Africa, although relatively small, has been almost completely attributable to modern varieties, with little contribution from fertilizer and other inputs. 38 48 36 24 12 0 Cereals yields, tonnes per hectare 3.5 2.5 1.5 0.5 1984 1987 Sub-Sahara Africa 1990 1993 1996 Poverty incidence, % 60 1999 2002 There is considerable variability in adoption patterns of modern varieties within regions as well as across crops. In Latin America, for example, farmer-saved maize seed was grown by 60 to 100 percent of farmers in most Central American countries (with the exception of El Salvador) and by more than 50 percent of the farmers in the Plurinational State of Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru. 39 However, hybrid seed maize was more widely used in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Similar patterns were evident in Eastern and Southern Africa, where the adoption of modern semidwarf varieties of wheat was high in most countries, but adoption of hybrid maize was far patchier (e.g. 91 percent adoption in Zimbabwe compared with 3 percent in Mozambique). Several factors help to explain these trends. One is environmental heterogeneity – e.g. in the harsh and variable highland regions of the Andes, local maize varieties may be better suited than improved hybrids. Another factor may be the availability of a large range of alternative types. Ethiopia, for example, which had lower levels of adoption of semi-dwarf wheat than other countries in the region, is a secondary centre of diversity for durum 48 36 24 12 0 193

194 CHAPTER 8 FIGURE 8.5 The growth in area under improved cereal varieties in 1980 and 2000 Sub-Sahara Africa South Asia East Asia & Pacific Middle East & North Africa Latin America & Carribean Source: Evenson, R.E. & Gollin, D. (eds.). 0 20 40 Cereal area, % 60 80 wheat and thus greater genetic diversity was available to help farmers in their heterogeneous and difficult growing environments. Studies at the household level paint a varied picture. Adoption tends to vary by crop rather than by household and depends on such factors as the sources of seed and its cost, the specific agro-ecological conditions encountered and on the demands of the farm and consumption system. In an analysis of modern variety adoption of sorghum and bread wheat in low-income farming communities of Eastern Ethiopia, 40 it was found that the poorest people were significantly less likely to adopt modern varieties of either crop, although higher adoption levels were found for wheat than sorghum. Sorghum is a crop with considerable local diversity available through local seed systems; it is grown for multiple purposes and on-farm seed-storage techniques are well developed. In contrast, bread wheat, unlike durum wheat, is a relatively recently introduced crop in this area of Ethiopia and as a result, the genetic diversity available locally is quite limited. While modern varieties have been shown to contribute significantly to poverty reduction, they have arguably been less successful in enhancing the 24 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA 48 59 77 2000 1980 sustainable agricultural development of small-farm systems, especially in more marginal production environments. Key shortcomings cited have been a lack of adaptation to heterogeneous and harsh production areas 41 and the failure, cited in several country reports, of many centralized plant breeding programmes to breed for traits of concern to small-scale and resource poor farmers. 8.4.2 Diversification and the use of genetic diversity The choice of which crops and varieties to plant is driven by a range of economic, social and agronomic factors, including the availability of suitable market outlets, prices, familiarity and societal acceptance, costs of production, the need for and availability of production inputs (including seeds, water, fertilizers, pesticides, labour, etc.), climate, soils and topography. While for the more market-oriented producers varietal choice is largely driven by yield and market demand, this is not the case for most food-insecure farmers. Studies 42 have shown that household farms in most developing countries produce both for their own consumption as well as for sale, 43,44 and that when 85

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    documentation and characterization

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

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    CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and

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    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

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    Chapter 5 The state of national pro

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    CHAPTER 5 Box 5.2 India’s Protect

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    138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http

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    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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