Views
5 years ago

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE CONTRIBUTION OF

THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD SECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT farmers are both consumers and producers of food, this has a major impact on which crops are grown. Farm households also tend to draw on a variety of activities to achieve food and income security. 45 Diversification across activities is an important risk management strategy, often one of the very few available to poor farmers. At the crop level, farmers can diversify with respect to the crops and varieties they grow and at the farm level, a diversity of enterprises can be undertaken, e.g. food processing, meat or egg production, agroforestry or agrotourism. Many of these strategies have important implications for genetic diversity and the crops and varieties grown. Households are also increasingly relying on off-farm employment, often with one or more family members taking on paid employment away from the farm and remitting money back home. A recent study looked at data from the FAO Rural Income Generation Project (RIGA) across sixteen developing countries in Africa, Latin America, Asia and Eastern Europe. 46 The study found that income diversification was generally the norm for most of the countries, although less so for those in Africa where off-farm FIGURE 8.6 Seed sources by consumption group in Malawi (1=poor; 5=rich) Percent of Plots 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 Source: RIGA Database (available at: http://www.fao.org/es/esa/RIGA/English/Index_en.htm). 3 Consumption Quintile opportunities are normally fewer. Different income diversification strategies, within and outside of agriculture, obviously have different implications for PGRFA management. 8.4.3 Access to seed Section 4.8 emphasized how, for agriculture to be successful and sustainable, sufficient good quality seed has to be available to farmers at the right time and at the right price. Recent evidence underscores the importance of markets in providing seed to poor farmers. 47 Analysis of the FAO RIGA data for Ghana, Malawi and Nigeria confirms this. In Malawi, for example, purchased seed was used on 30 percent of the plots, a percentage that was essentially the same across all income groups (see Figure 8.6). However, the source of purchased seed varied significantly. While local markets were the most important source of seed for all groups, their relative importance diminished as farmers’ wealth status increased and private companies played an increasingly important role in providing seeds to better-off farmers. 4 5 Local market Neighbour Private company Starter Pack/Tip ADMARC Coop/Association Other 195

196 CHAPTER 8 Box 8.3 FAO Initiative on Soaring Food Prices Farmers tend to favour local markets for purchasing seed because 1) locally traded seed is less expensive than seed from industry; and 2) there is a ready availability of locally adapted materials. 48 Many country reports stressed the need for stronger seed production and distribution systems as well as for greater harmonization between the commercial and farmers’ seed sectors. 8.4.4 Globalization and PGRFA Globalization and trade liberalization have increased substantially since the first SoW report was published, leading to rapid economic expansion in many but by no means all countries. Market opportunities have opened up for new products, with the result that the demand for particular crops and varieties has shifted. Many small-scale farming systems that were traditionally selfreliant for seed have increasingly had both the need and the resources to access new varieties. Moreover, a growing share of produce from the small-scale sector is now reaching local, national and even international markets. The privatization of breeding has continued (see Section 4.4) and the commercial plant breeding sector has become markedly more concentrated in the hands of fewer multinational companies. In the first three months of 2008, international food prices of all major food commodities reached their highest level in nearly 30 years (see Figure 8.7). This was the result of a number of factors including: THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA FAO launched the Initiative on Soaring Food Prices (ISFP) in 2007 with the immediate goal of raising USD 1.7 billion for rapidly increasing food production in 2008 and 2009, mainly through supporting direct access to inputs for smallholders in the most affected countries. FAO’s assistance has taken the form of: (i) interventions to increase access by small-scale farmers to inputs (e.g. seeds, fertilizer, animal feed) and improve agricultural practices (e.g. water and soil management, reduction of post-harvest losses); (ii) policy and technical support; (iii) measures to increase smallholder access to markets; (iv) a strategic response to cushion the effects of rising food prices in the short, medium and long term, through increased and sustainable investment in agriculture. poor harvests in several major producing countries; a marked decline in food stocks; high energy prices; subsidized production of biofuels; speculation on futures markets; the imposition of export restrictions and a lack of investment in the agricultural sector. 49 Although prices of agricultural commodities have come down since then, they remain volatile and as of mid-2009 food prices in the most vulnerable countries remain high, in some cases double what they were just two years before. This has thrown into reverse earlier progress towards achieving the first MDG of eradicating poverty and hunger. In late 2007 FAO launched the ISFP in response to these sudden price increases (see Box 8.3). While there is no single and easy solution, the wise use of PGRFA, particularly to underpin the breeding of new varieties, can make a very significant contribution to helping the world’s poorest people survive and thrive in a world of increasing globalization through helping to expand and stabilize food production and increase the incomes of many of the world’s poorest people. 8.5 Changes since the first State of the World report was published Since the first SoW report was published, a number of trends relating to food security and sustainable

  • Page 1 and 2:

    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

  • Page 3 and 4:

    The designations employed and the p

  • Page 5 and 6:

    I hope and trust that the informati

  • Page 7 and 8:

    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

  • Page 9 and 10:

    5.5 Changes since the first State o

  • Page 11 and 12:

    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

  • Page 13 and 14:

    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

  • Page 15 and 16:

    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

  • Page 17 and 18:

    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

  • Page 20 and 21:

    Executive summary �his report des

  • Page 22 and 23:

    documentation and characterization

  • Page 24 and 25:

    Given the high level of interdepend

  • Page 28:

    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

  • Page 31 and 32:

    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

  • Page 33 and 34:

    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

  • Page 35 and 36:

    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

  • Page 37 and 38:

    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

  • Page 39 and 40:

    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

  • Page 41 and 42:

    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

  • Page 43 and 44:

    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

  • Page 45 and 46:

    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

  • Page 47 and 48:

    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

  • Page 49 and 50:

    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

  • Page 51 and 52:

    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

  • Page 53:

    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

  • Page 58 and 59:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

  • Page 60 and 61:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

  • Page 62 and 63:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT the

  • Page 64 and 65:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT TAB

  • Page 66 and 67:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT TAB

  • Page 68 and 69:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT com

  • Page 70 and 71:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT on

  • Page 72 and 73:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT has

  • Page 74 and 75:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 12

  • Page 76 and 77:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 53

  • Page 78:

    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

  • Page 82 and 83:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 3

  • Page 84 and 85:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION F

  • Page 86 and 87:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

  • Page 88 and 89:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION t

  • Page 90 and 91:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

  • Page 92 and 93:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

  • Page 94 and 95:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION U

  • Page 96 and 97:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

  • Page 98 and 99:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION u

  • Page 100 and 101:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

  • Page 102 and 103:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION l

  • Page 104 and 105:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

  • Page 106 and 107:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION p

  • Page 108 and 109:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION T

  • Page 110 and 111:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION C

  • Page 112 and 113:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION N

  • Page 114 and 115:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION t

  • Page 116 and 117:

    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

  • Page 120:

    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

  • Page 123 and 124:

    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

  • Page 125 and 126:

    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

  • Page 127 and 128:

    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

  • Page 129 and 130:

    CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and

  • Page 131 and 132:

    CHAPTER 4 improvement. While the fi

  • Page 133 and 134:

    CHAPTER 4 exchange of material and

  • Page 135 and 136:

    CHAPTER 4 4.7.4 Cooperation and lin

  • Page 137 and 138:

    CHAPTER 4 seed legislation to meet

  • Page 139 and 140:

    CHAPTER 4 A number of countries 36

  • Page 141 and 142:

    CHAPTER 4 Different plants are rich

  • Page 143 and 144:

    CHAPTER 4 breeding activities over

  • Page 145 and 146:

    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

  • Page 148:

    Chapter 5 The state of national pro

  • Page 151 and 152:

    CHAPTER 5 national system based on

  • Page 153 and 154:

    CHAPTER 5 involvement vary from the

  • Page 155 and 156:

    CHAPTER 5 of Bolivia, for example,

  • Page 157 and 158:

    CHAPTER 5 In some countries includi

  • Page 159 and 160:

    CHAPTER 5 Africa, Burkina Faso, Cam

  • Page 161 and 162:

    CHAPTER 5 Box 5.2 India’s Protect

  • Page 163 and 164:

    CHAPTER 5 the adoption of national

  • Page 165 and 166:

    138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http

  • Page 168:

    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

  • Page 171 and 172: CHAPTER 6 a) those that focus on co
  • Page 173 and 174: 146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to
  • Page 175 and 176: CHAPTER 6 • the Regional Cooperat
  • Page 177 and 178: CHAPTER 6 and African countries for
  • Page 179 and 180: CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR Syst
  • Page 181 and 182: CHAPTER 6 • ICBA: 64 ICBA was est
  • Page 183 and 184: CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ
  • Page 185 and 186: CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was
  • Page 187 and 188: 160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.
  • Page 190: Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R
  • Page 193 and 194: CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u
  • Page 195 and 196: CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con
  • Page 197 and 198: 170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON
  • Page 199 and 200: CHAPTER 7 has been adapted to incor
  • Page 201 and 202: CHAPTER 7 changes after the initial
  • Page 203 and 204: CHAPTER 7 regional workshops on Far
  • Page 205: 178 CHAPTER 7 20 Experience of the
  • Page 210 and 211: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 212 and 213: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 214 and 215: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 216 and 217: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 218 and 219: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 220 and 221: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 224 and 225: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 226 and 227: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 228: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S
  • Page 232 and 233: LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF
  • Page 234 and 235: LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF
  • Page 238: Annex 2 Regional distribution of co
  • Page 241: EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC
  • Page 246 and 247: STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS
  • Page 248 and 249: STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS
  • Page 250 and 251: STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS
  • Page 252 and 253: STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS
  • Page 254 and 255: STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS
  • Page 256 and 257: STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS
  • Page 258 and 259: STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS
  • Page 260 and 261: STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS
  • Page 262 and 263: STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS
  • Page 264 and 265: STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS
  • Page 266: STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS
  • Page 270 and 271: MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP
  • Page 272 and 273:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 274 and 275:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 276 and 277:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 278 and 279:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 280 and 281:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 282 and 283:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 284 and 285:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 286 and 287:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 288 and 289:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 290 and 291:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 292 and 293:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 294 and 295:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 296 and 297:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 298 and 299:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 300 and 301:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 302 and 303:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 304 and 305:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 306 and 307:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 308 and 309:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 310:

    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

  • Page 314 and 315:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 316 and 317:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 318 and 319:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 320 and 321:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 322 and 323:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 324 and 325:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 326 and 327:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 328 and 329:

    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

  • Page 332:

    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

  • Page 335 and 336:

    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

  • Page 337 and 338:

    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

  • Page 339 and 340:

    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

  • Page 341 and 342:

    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

  • Page 343 and 344:

    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

  • Page 345 and 346:

    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

  • Page 347 and 348:

    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

  • Page 349 and 350:

    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

  • Page 351 and 352:

    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

  • Page 353 and 354:

    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

  • Page 355 and 356:

    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

  • Page 357 and 358:

    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

  • Page 359 and 360:

    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

  • Page 361 and 362:

    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

  • Page 363 and 364:

    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

  • Page 365 and 366:

    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

  • Page 367 and 368:

    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

  • Page 369 and 370:

    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

  • Page 371 and 372:

    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

  • Page 373 and 374:

    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

  • Page 375 and 376:

    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

  • Page 377 and 378:

    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

  • Page 379 and 380:

    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

  • Page 381 and 382:

    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

  • Page 383 and 384:

    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

  • Page 385 and 386:

    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

  • Page 387 and 388:

    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

  • Page 389 and 390:

    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

  • Page 391 and 392:

    NISM National Information Sharing M

  • Page 393 and 394:

    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

  • Page 395 and 396:

    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

  • Page 397:

    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture - FAO
The State of Food and Agriculture - FAO
ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES RESSOURCES ... - FAO
The State of Food and Agriculture 2013 - FAO
THE NATIONAL ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES CENTRE ... - FAO
Germany - FAO
The state of food and agriculture, 1968 - FAO
New Genetics, Food and Agriculture - International Council for Science
IN SITU - FAO
The Right to Food and Access to Natural Resources - FAO
Food Security and Agricultural Mitigation in Developing ... - FAO
Genetically Modified Plants for Food Use and Human ... - Guardian
The State of the World's Land and Water Resources for Food ... - FAO
varieties creation and conservation of plant genetic resources
GROWING FOOD - FAO
ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES RESSOURCES ... - FAO
Conservation Agriculture and Sustainable Crop Intensification ... - FAO
Food wastage footprint: Impacts on natural resources ... - FAO
Conservation agriculture as practised in Kenya: two case ... - FAO
The State of Food and Agriculture 2010-11: Women in ... - FAO
Portugal - FAO
New Genetics, Food and Agriculture: Scientific ... - ArgenBio
Land tenure and international investments in agriculture - FAO
food insecurity in the world - FAO
Food Insecurity in the World - FAO
The state of food insecurity in the world - 2012 - FAO
Agriculture Sector Bulletin Summer 2011 [pdf] - FAO
Climate change, water and food security - FAO