THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD SECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT • greater attention needs to be given to the development of more decentralized, participatory and gender sensitive approaches to plant breeding in order to more effectively generate varieties that are specifically adapted to the particular production environments and socio-economic situations of the poor in less favoured environments; • agricultural markets play a vital role in helping achieve food security and sustainable agricultural development. They can help increase the diversity of PGRFA in the seed supply chain and provide outlets for the products of neglected and underutilized crops, leading to greater dietary diversity. Better access by resource poor farmers to markets and strengthened market information systems are needed. References 1 Progress report on the Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development (SARD) Initiative to the Committee on Agriculture of FAOand the UN Commission on Sustainable Development on progress of the Initiative, 2006. 2 WSSD. 2002. 3 MEA. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis, Island Press, Washington, DC. 4 Country report: Pakistan 5 Near East and North Africa Regional Synthesis of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, 2008. 6 Right to Food Voluntary Guidelines. 7 FAO. 2001. The State of Food Insecurity in the World. 8 Measured as: (gross imports + gross exports)/2 * production. 9 Country report: China. 10 Country report: Malawi. 11 NERICA: New Rice for Africa. See, for example, http:// www.warda.org/NERICA%20flyer/technology.htm 12 Nguyen, T.N.H., Tuyen, T.V., Canh, N.T., Hien, P.V., Chuong, P.V., Sthapit, B.R., Jarvis, D. (Eds.). 2005. In situ Conservation of Agricultural Biodiversity on Farm: Lessons Learned and Policy Implications. Proceedings of Vietnamese National Workshop, 30 March-1 April 2004, Hanoi, Viet Nam. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. 13 Bellon, M.R. 1996. The dynamics of crop infraspecific diversity: A conceptual framework at the farmer level. Economic Botany, 50(1): 26–39. 14 Country report: Portugal. 15 Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Synthesis of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, 2009. 16 Available at: http://www.slowfood.com/ 17 See, for example, http://www.origin-gi.com 18 Available at: http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/ LMD/kampanjeSvalbard/Vedlegg/Svalbard_ Statement_270208.pdf 19 Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/ 20 See, for example: Burke, M.B., Lobell, D.B. & Guarino, L. 2009. Shifts in African crop climates by 2050, and the implications for crop improvement andgeneticresources conservation. Global Environmental Change. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. gloenvcha.2009.04.003 21 Lobell, D.B., Burke, M.B., Tebaldi, C., Mastrandrea, M.D., Falcon, W.P. & Naylor, R.L. 2008. Prioritizing Climate Change Adaptation Needs for Food Security in 2030. Science, 319(5863): 607-610. 199
200 CHAPTER 8 22 In some cases women are associated with particular crops. For example, in parts of Ghana, women are considered primarily responsible for providing ingredients for soups (considered a “female” dish), whereas men are responsible for providing starches (a “male” dish). 23 LinKS [Gender, Biodiversity and Local Knowledge Systems for Food Security] 2003. Proceedings of the National Workshop on Sharing and Application of Local/Indigenous Knowledge in Tanzania. LinKS Report No. 5. Rome. 24 For example, see: http://www.harvestplus.org 25 Country report: Kenya 26 For example, see: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/ en/ 27 Padulosi, S., Hodgkin, T., Williams, J.T. & Haq, N. 2002. Underutilized Crops: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities in the 21st Century. In: Engels, J.M.M., Ramanatha Rao, V., Brown, A.H.D. & Jackson, M.T., (Eds). Managing Plant Genetic Diversity, 30: 323-338. IPGRI, Rome. 28 Country reports: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, China, Dominica, Ethiopia, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malawi, Pakistan, Romania, Sri Lanka, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia and Zimbabwe. 29 Country reports: Ghana, Hungary, India, Pakistan and Yemen. 30 Country reports: Argentina, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Jamaica, Palau, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Zimbabwe. 31 Crops for the Future was created in 2008 as a result of a merger between the International Centre for Underutilized Crops and the Global Facilitation Unit for Underutilized Species. Available at: www. cropsforthefuture.org/ THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA 32 Thirtle, C., Lin, L. & Piesse, J. 2003. The impact of research-led agricultural productivity growth on poverty reduction in Africa, Asia and Latin America. World Development, 31(12): 1959–1975. 33 Smale, M. & Koo, B. 2003. Biotechnology andgenetic resource policies; what is a genebank worth? IFPRI Policy Brief. IFPRI, Washington D.C. 34 Evenson, R.E. & Gollin, D. 1997. Genetic resources, international organizations, and improvement in rice varieties. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 45(3): 471–500. 35 Hazell, P.B.R. 2008. An Assessment of the Impact of Agricultural Research in South Asia since the Green Revolution. Science Council Secretariat, Rome. 36 Gollin, D., Morris, M. & Byerlee, D. 2005. Technology Adoption in Intensive Post-Green Revolution Systems. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 87(5): 1310-1316. 37 Evenson, R.E. & Gollin, D. (eds.), 2003. Crop Variety Improvement and Its Effect on Productivity: The Impact of International Agricultural Research. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. 38 Op cit. Endnote 37. 39 Aquino, P., Carrión, F. & Calvo, R. 1999. Selected Wheat Statistics. In: Pingali, P.L. (ed.). 1998/99. World Wheat Facts and Trends: Global Wheat Research in a Changing World: Challenges and Achievements. CIMMYT. pp. 45-57. 40 Lipper, L., Cavatassi, R. & Winters, P. 2006. Seed supply and the on-farm demandfor diversity: A Case study from Eastern Ethiopia. In: Smale, M. (eds): Valuing crop biodiversity: On farm geneticresourcesand economic change. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. pp. 223-250.