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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

documentation

documentation and characterization of many collections is still inadequate and in cases where information does exist, it is often difficult to access. Greater efforts are needed to build a truly rational global system of ex situ collections. This requires, in particular, strengthened regional and international trust and cooperation. The number of botanical gardens around the world now exceeds 2 500, maintaining samples of some 80 000 plant species. Many of these are CWR. Botanical gardens took the lead in developing the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2002. The creation of the GCDT and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) both represent major achievements since the first SoW report was published and the world’s PGRFA is undoubtedly more secure as a result. However, while seed collections are larger and more secure overall, the situation has progressed less in the case of vegetatively propagated species and species whose seeds cannot be dried and stored at low temperatures. 4 The state of use The sustainable use of PGRFA primarily through plant breeding and associated seed systems remains essential for food security, viable agricultural enterprise and for adaptation to climate change. By aggregating data globally, it appears that plant breeding capacity has not changed significantly during the last 15 years. A modest increase in the number of plant breeders has been reported in some countries and a decline in others. In many countries public sector plant breeding has continued to contract, with the private sector increasingly taking over. Agriculture in many developing countries that reduced their support to public sector crop development, leaving instead, the sustainable use of PGRFA to the private sector, is more vulnerable than in the past as private sector breeding and seed enterprise is restricted largely to a few crops for which farmers buy fresh seed each season. Considerably more attention and capacity building is urgently needed to strengthen plant breeding capacity and the associated seed systems in most developing countries, where most of the important crops are not, and will not be, the focus of private enterprise. The number of accessions characterized and evaluated has increased in all regions but not in all individual countries. More countries now use molecular markers to characterize their germplasm and undertake genetic enhancement and base-broadening to introduce new traits from non-adapted populations and wild relatives. Several new important international initiatives have been established to promote the increased use of PGRFA. The Global Partnership Initiative for Plant Breeding Capacity Building (GIPB), for instance, aims to enhance the sustainable use of PGRFA in developing countries through helping to build capacity in plant breeding and seed systems. The GCDT, and the new Generation and Harvest Plus Challenge Programs of the CCGIAR, all support the increased characterization, evaluation and improvement of germplasm. Genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and climate change were all absent from the first SoW report but are important now, and greater prominence is also given to sustainable agriculture, biofuel crops and human health. Although progress in research and development of neglected and underutilized species, as recommended in the first SoW report, is difficult to gauge, it is clear that further efforts are needed. xxi

In many countries there is a need for more effective strategies, policies and legislation, including seed and intellectual property (IP) legislation, to promote a greater use of PGRFA. Good opportunities exist to strengthen cooperation among those involved in conservation and use, at all stages of the seed and food chain. Stronger links are needed, especially between plant breeders and those involved in seed systems, as well as between the public and private sectors. 5 The state of national programmes, training needs and legislation Although the first SoW report classified national programmes into three categories, it has since become clear that such a typology is too simplistic. There is huge heterogeneity among national programmes in terms of their goals, functions, organization and structure. Of the 113 countries that provided information for both the first and second SoW reports, 46 percent had no national programme in 1996 whereas 71 percent have one now. In most countries, national government institutions are the principal entities involved, however, the number of other stakeholders, especially universities, has expanded. Many of the country reports noted that funding remains inadequate and unreliable. Even in countries with well-coordinated national programmes, certain elements are often missing. National, publicly accessible databases, for example are still comparatively rare, as are coordinated systems for safety duplication and public awareness. Since the first SoW report was published, most countries have enacted new national phytosanitary legislation, or revised old legislation, in large part in response to the adoption of the revised International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) in 1997. With respect to intellectual property rights (IPR), of the 85 developing and Eastern European countries that now recognize Plant Breeders Rights (PBR), 60 have done so in the last decade. Seven others are currently drafting legislation. The importance of farmers as custodians and developers of genetic diversity was recognized in the ITPGRFA through the provisions of Article 9 on Farmers’ Rights. Eight countries have now adopted regulations covering one or more aspects of Farmers’ Rights. Since the first SoW report, biosafety has emerged as an important issue and many countries have now either adopted national biosafety regulations or frameworks, or are currently developing them. As of February 2010, 157 countries and the European Union had ratified the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. 6 The state of regional and international collaboration The entry into force of the ITPGRFA in 2004 marks what is probably the most significant development since the publication of the first SoW report. The ITPGRFA is a legally binding international agreement that promotes the conservation and sustainable use of PGRFA and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use, in harmony with the CBD. International collaboration is strongly promoted by the ITPGRFA, for which FAO provides the Secretariat. xxii

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES

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    Appendix 4 State of diversity of ma

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    APPENDIX 4 some country reports. 6

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    APPENDIX 4 option for perennial tax

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    APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T

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    APPENDIX 4 regeneration of existing

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    APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehen

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yield

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    APPENDIX 4 actively contribute to t

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    APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustaina

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    APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent).

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    APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild s

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    appendiX 4 Ex situ conservation sta

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    APPENDIX 4 Documentation, character

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    APPENDIX 4 The two global chickpea

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    APPENDIX 4 in collections, absence

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    APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.5 Global yield

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    338 APPENDIX 4 are also conserved.

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    340 APPENDIX 4 WebPDF/Crop percent2

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    342 APPENDIX 4 90 Op cit. Endnote 2

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    344 APPENDIX 4 159 GCDT. 2007. Glob

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    346 APPENDIX 4 217 Op cit. Endnote

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    348 APPENDIX 4 291 Op cit. Endnote

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    350 APPENDIX 4 366 Ibid. Endnote 35

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    CN Centre Néerlandais (Côte d’I

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    DTRUFC División of Tropical Resear

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    HRIGRU Horticultural Research Inter

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    INIA CARI Centro Regional de Invest

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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