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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

THE STATE-OF-THE-ART:

THE STATE-OF-THE-ART: METHODOLOGIES AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE IDENTIFICATION, CONSERVATION AND USE OF PGRFA of Diversity Arrays Technology for high-throughput DNA analyses in Musa. Theor. and Applied Genet., 119:1093-1103. 26 González-Martínez, S.C., Krutovsky, K.V. & Neale, D.B. 2006. Forest tree population genomics and adaptive evolution. New Phytologist 170:227-238. Provides a review of differences among marker types. 27 FAO. 2001. Forest genomics for conserving adaptive genetic diversity. Paper prepared by K. Krutovskii and D.B. Neale. Forest Genetic Resources Working Papers, Working Paper FGR/3 (July 2001). Forest Resources Development Service, Forest Resources Division. FAO, Rome (unpublished). 28 Holderegger, R., Kamm, U. & Gugerli, F. 2006. Adaptive versus neutral genetic diversity: Implications for landscape genetics. Landscape Ecology 21:797-807. 29 For example, a thorough discussion of several types of markers and many different uses of them is provided by De Vincente, M.C., Guzman, F.A., Engels, J.M.M. & Rao, V.R. 2006. Genetic characterization and its use in decision-making for the conservation of crop germplasm. p. 129-138 in J. Ruane and A. Sonnino (eds.) The role of biotechnology in exploring and protecting agricultural genetic resources. UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Rome, Italy. 30 Varshney, R.K., Chabane, K., Hendre, P.S., Aggarwal, R.K. & Graner, A. 2007. Comparative assessment of EST-SSR, EST-SNP and AFLP markers for evaluation of genetic diversity and conservation of genetic resources using wild, cultivated and elite barleys. Plant Science, 173:638-649. 31 Op cit. Endnote 4. 32 Deleu, W., Esteras, C., Roig, C., González-To, M., Fernández-Silva, I., Gonzalez-Ibeas, D., Blanca, J., Aranda, M.A., Arús, P., Nuez, F., Monforte, A.J., Picó, M.B. & Garcia-Mas, J. 2009. A set of EST- SNPs for map saturation and cultivar identification in melon. BMC Plant Biology, 9:90-98. 33 Bonin, A., Nicole, F., Pompanon, F., Miaud, C. & Taberlet, P. 2007. Population adaptive index: A new method to help measure intraspecific genetic diversity and prioritize populations for conservation. Conservation Biology 21:697-708. Combines an analysis of the differences among neutral and adaptive diversity with a presentation of a ‘population adaptive index’ proposed as a way to allow use of many molecular markers distributed throughout the genome (a measure only possible because of advances in biotechnology) that will allow pinpointing localized variations in the pattern of diversity thus detecting loci supposedly under natural selection and thus of adaptive significance. 34 Scarelli, N., Tostain, S., Vigouroux, Y., Agbangla, C., Daïnou, O. & Pham, J.-L. 2006. Farmers’ use of wild relative and sexual reproduction in a vegetatively propagated crop. The case of yam in Benin. Molecular Ecology, 15:2421-2431. 35 Gómez-Campo, C. 2006. Erosion of genetic resources within seed genebanks: The role of seed containers. Seed Science Research, 16:291-294. 36 Pérez-García, F., González-Benito, M.E. & Gómez- Campo, C. 2007. High viability recorded in ultradry seeds of Brassicaceae after almost 40 years of storage. Seed Science and Technology 35:143-153. This paper presents data on the impact of humidity and quality of storage materials on seed longevity. 37 Jansen, J., Verbakel, H., Peleman, J. & Van Hintum, T.J.L. 2006. A note on the measurement of genetic diversity within genebank accessions of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) using AFLP markers. Theor. and Applied Genet., 112:554-561. 38 Motilal, L.A., Zhang, D., Umaharan, P., Mischke, S., Boccara, M. & Pinney, S. 2009. Increasing accuracy and throughput in large-scale microsatellite fingerprinting of cacao field germplasm collections. Tropical Plant Biology, 2:23-37. 39 Rice, N., Cordeiro, G., Shepherd, M., Bundock, P., Bradbury, L., Pacey-Miller, T., Furtado, A. & 301

302 APPENDIX 3 Henry, R. 2006. DNA banks and their role in facilitating the application of genomics to plant germplasm. Plant Genetic Resources 4:64-70. Australian Plant DNA Bank: http://www.dnabank.com.au/; NIAS DNA Bank: http://www.dna.affrc.go.jp/; RBG Kew DNA Bank: http://data.kew.org/dnabank/ homepage.html; The DNA Bank in Berlin-Dahlem, at the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum (BGBM): http://www.bgbm.org/bgbm/research/dna/. 40 Moose, S.P. & Mumm, R.H. 2008. Molecular plant breeding as the foundation for 21st century crop improvement. Plant Physiology, 147:969-977. 41 Guimarães, E.P., Ruane, J., Scherf, B.D., Sonnino, A. & Dargie, J.D. (eds.) 2007. Marker-assisted selection: Current status and future perspectives in crops, livestock, forestry and fish. UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Rome, Italy. 42 Zhu, C., Gore, M., Buckler, E.S. & Yu, J., 2008. Status and prospects of association mapping in plants. The Plant Genome, 1:5-20. 43 For example, according to Country reports, molecular markers are in use for crop improvement in Argentina, Azerbaijan, Brazil, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt and Indonesia. 44 Bagge, M. & Lübberstedt, T. 2008. Functional markers in wheat: Technical and economic aspects. Molecular Breeding, 22:319-328. 45 James, C. 2008. Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops: 2008. ISAAA Brief No 39. Available online: www.isaaa.org/resources/publications/ briefs/39/default.html 46 Glover, D. 2007. Monsanto and smallholder farmers: A case-study on corporate accountability. THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA IDS Working Paper 277. University of Sussex, UK, Institute of Development Studies. 47 Glover, D. 2008. Made by Monsanto: The corporate shaping of GM crops as a technology for the poor. STEPS Working Paper 11. Brighton: STEPS Centre. Available online: www.steps-centre.org/PDFs/GM Crops web final_small.pdf. 48 See Chapter 7 49 See Chapter 6 and Appendix 4. 50 United Nations. 2010. World economic situation and prospects 2010. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations. New York NY USA. 51 Romero, G., Adeva, C. & Battad II, Z. 2009. Genetic fingerprinting: Advancing the frontiers of crop biology research. Philippine Science Letters 2:8- 13. This review summarizes the status of deploying fingerprinting with different markers, with examples from crops and situations in the Philippines. 52 Nelson, R.J., Naylor, R.L. & Jahn, M.M. 2004. The role of genomics research in improvement of “orphan” crops. Crop Science, 44:1901-1904. 53 See Chapters 3 & 4. For an outspoken advocacy of wider collecting and conservation strategies, see Walck, J. & Dixon, K. 2009. Time to future-proof plants in storage. Nature, 462:721. 54 The Brazil Country report, Chapter 9, offers a very effective discussion of these issues and a rationale for the contribution of genetic resources to sustainable development and food security.

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    BAAFS Beijing Academy of Agricultur

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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