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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF MAJOR AND MINOR CROPS FIGURE A4.1 Global yields of selected cereal crops (tonnes per hectare) 5.5 4.5 3.5 2.5 1.5 0.5 1996 1997 Source: FAOSTAT 1996/2008 1998 Maize 1999 Millets 2000 Wheat 2001 reported for 1996. The five largest producers in 2008 were still China (16 percent of global production), India (11 percent), the United States of America (10 percent), the Russian Federation (9 percent), and France (6 percent). World wheat production is based almost entirely on two species: common or bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, almost 95 percent of production) and durum or macaroni wheat (T. turgidum subsp. durum, about 5 percent of production). 30 The former is a hexaploid species (2n=2x=42) and the latter tetraploid (2n=2x=28). Very minor, extremely local production may still be found with diploid wheats and tetraploid subsp. besides durum. The genepool for wheats consists of modern and obsolete cultivars and breeding lines, landraces, related species (both wild and domesticated) in the Triticeae tribe, and genetic and cytogenetic stocks. Details of the genepool composition are described in the GCDT strategy plan: 31 The primary pool consists of the biological species, including cultivated, wild, and weedy forms of the crop species which can be easily hybridized. In the secondary genepool are species Rice 2002 2003 2004 2005 from which gene transfer is possible but with greater difficulty, typically species of Triticum and Aegilops. The tertiary genepool is composed of other species of the tribe (primarily annual species) from which gene transfer is possible only with great difficulty. ‘Ease’ of gene transfer is a technology-dependent concept and subject to change as are the taxonomic delimitations within the tribe. Wild relatives of wheat have proven to be highly useful sources of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in wheat breeding over the last two decades and this trend is expected to accelerate in the future. Similarly, genetic stocks are finding increasing use as tools in the sophisticated application of modern biotechnologies in wheat improvement. 32 In situ conservation status Sorghum 2006 2007 2008 One of the few global examples of a protected area created specifically for conservation of annual cereal CWR is the “Erebuni” State Reserve in Armenia, an 89 hectare region in the transition area between semidesert and mountain-steppe zones. Three out of the four known species of wild-growing wheat occur here 311

APPENDIX 4 (wild one-grain wheat, T. boeticum, wild two-grain Ararat wheat, T. araraticum, and wild urartu wheat, T. urartu) along with several species of Aegilops, in addition to a number of CWR of other cereal species (barley and rye). 33 Succession with other indigenous species and invasive species (both plants and animals) are threats to the integrity of the CWR species in this reserve as well as in any other in which cereal CWR may be found. In general, any protected areas in countries with Mediterranean climates are likely to include some wheat CWR taxa. Whether the genetic integrity of such populations are being maintained in these reserves is the key question. Ex situ conservation status Altogether, over 235 000 accessions are maintained in more than 200 ex situ collections. 34 Landraces, modern and obsolete improved cultivars are generally well conserved in wheat germplasm collections, while wild relatives of wheats are poorly represented. 35 Because of the specialized needs and conditions for developing and reliably maintaining genetic and cytogenetic stocks, these are not well represented in germplasm collections (probably in fewer than 90 collections) and are most likely to be found in research institutions. Regeneration progress is lacking in many country collections and is probably the single greatest threat to the safety of wheat accessions held in globally important genebanks. Lack of funding is the principle limitation. 36 Genetic erosion and vulnerability The instances of absence of genetic erosion or lack of vulnerability are rare. Chapter 1 highlights the increase in genetic diversity and allelic richness in varieties released from the CIMMYT spring bread wheat improvement program. Many CWR have a weedy habit and thrive in disturbed areas or areas of cultivation and thus are often widespread, but there is little known in general about the genetic diversity itself in these adventitious populations. Regeneration progress is lacking in many country wheat genetic resources collections (about 10 percent of collection, globally) and it is probably the single greatest threat to the safety of wheat accessions held 312 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA in globally important genebanks. Lack of funding is the principle limitation. 37 Examples of concerns from country reports are: there is a gradual disappearance of landraces of wheat; 38 all primitive wheat cultivars are lost; 39 and old varieties of wheat are replaced by modern cultivars in main production areas. 40 Gaps and priorities As summarized in Chapter 3, according to the opinion of collection managers, the major gaps in collections relate to landraces and cultivars. Key users of wheat genetic resources, however, indicated the need for more mapping populations, mutants, genetic stocks and a wider range of wild relatives. This divergence of perceptions of the major function of collections between genebank managers and germplasm users complicates evaluation of the status of diversity. 41 CWR are relatively poorly represented in collections and more collecting is needed. 42, 43 The level of genetic diversity and breadth of provenance of wild related species maintained in existing collections is small. One of the scenarios of climate change is increased regional temperatures. This could be beneficial for the wheat crop in some regions, but it could reduce productivity in regions where temperatures are optimal for wheat. New wheat cultivars will be needed to adapt the crop to changing environments and still meet the nutritional needs of people. Identification and deployment of heat-tolerant germplasm is a high priority. 44 Safety duplication Safety duplication is lacking for most country collections of wheat. Less than 10 percent of the globally important wheat collections have their entire collection duplicated elsewhere for safety, while a majority have only partial or no safety duplication in place. 45 Utilization There are large differences in productivity between countries, even when similar agronomic practices

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    I hope and trust that the informati

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    2.4 Global challenges to in situ co

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    5.5 Changes since the first State o

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    Appendix 2 Major germplasm collecti

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    3.2 Holders of the six largest ex s

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    The CGRFA requested that the SoWPGR

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    Chapter 7 - Access to plant genetic

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    Given the high level of interdepend

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    Chapter 1 The state of diversity CH

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    CHAPTER 1 1.2.1 Changes in the stat

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    TABLE 1.2 Comparison between the co

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    CHAPTER 1 in national agricultural

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    12 CHAPTER 1 AFRICA • Benin Molec

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    14 CHAPTER 1 NEAR EAST effective at

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    CHAPTER 1 comparisons, or use the i

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    18 CHAPTER 1 FIGURE 1.3 Interdepend

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    CHAPTER 1 even national, germplasm

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT 2.1

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT (ba

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT the

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    THE STATE OF IN SITU MANAGEMENT Max

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 3

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION A

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION N

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION t

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    THE STATE OF EX SITU CONSERVATION 1

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    Chapter 4 The state of use CHAPTER

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

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    CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and

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    CHAPTER 4 improvement. While the fi

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    CHAPTER 4 exchange of material and

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    CHAPTER 4 A number of countries 36

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    CHAPTER 4 Different plants are rich

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    CHAPTER 4 breeding activities over

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    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

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    Chapter 5 The state of national pro

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    CHAPTER 5 national system based on

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    CHAPTER 5 involvement vary from the

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    CHAPTER 5 of Bolivia, for example,

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    CHAPTER 5 In some countries includi

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    CHAPTER 5 Africa, Burkina Faso, Cam

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    CHAPTER 5 Box 5.2 India’s Protect

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    CHAPTER 5 the adoption of national

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    138 CHAPTER 5 10 Available at: http

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    Chapter 6 The state of regional and

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    CHAPTER 6 a) those that focus on co

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    146 CHAPTER 6 PGRN has continued to

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    CHAPTER 6 • the Regional Cooperat

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    CHAPTER 6 and African countries for

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    CHAPTER 6 few years, the CGIAR Syst

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    CHAPTER 6 • ICBA: 64 ICBA was est

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    CHAPTER 6 Varieties. Central Americ

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    CHAPTER 6 the first SoW report was

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    Chapter 7 Access to Plant Genetic R

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    CHAPTER 7 Box 7.1 Benefit-sharing u

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    CHAPTER 7 laws, regulations and con

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    170 CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND REPORT ON

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    IVM Institute of Grape and Wine «M

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    NISM National Information Sharing M

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    SRI Sugar Crop Research Institute,

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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