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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF MAJOR AND MINOR CROPS richness in varieties released from CIMMYT’s maize improvement program (Chapter 1). More typical is the report by individual countries of a loss of older varieties and landraces. 70 The predominant cause reported is replacement of traditional varieties by modern cultivars. All populations of teosinte are threatened. 71 Gaps and priorities National and international reserves need to be established to protect the remaining fragments of the Balsas, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, and Nicaraguan races of teosinte. CIMMYT’s current ex situ Tripsacum garden at Tlaltizapan, Morelos, should continue to be maintained, with a duplicate garden established in Veracruz (or some equivalent lowland, tropical environment). Another Tripsacum garden could be established near IITA headquarters in Africa. In situ monitoring of Tripsacum populations should be conducted in Mexico and Guatemala, the center of diversity for the genus, and in other countries in Central and South America, where both widespread and endemic species are found. Ex situ Tripsacum gardens at CIMMYT and USDA in Florida should be enriched with the diversity found from the wild, and more collaboration should occur between these two unique sites. 72 As summarized in Chapter 3, major gaps identified in existing ex situ maize collections include hybrids and tropical inbred lines, in addition to the gaps resulting from the loss of accessions from collections; for example, the entire collection of Dominica has been lost as has much of the material collected by IBPGR in the 1970s. The GCDT maize strategy emphasized specifically that hybrids and private inbred lines (not those now with plant variety protection [PVP] or with recently expired PVP) are missing from genebanks. 73 There is a need to identify core subsets of the maize races, but it depends on expertise not only in statistical procedures, but more critically, in racial and accession classification and the availability of the type of data needed to develop reasonable classification decisions. 74 While coverage of New World maize is good in genebanks, 75 about 10 percent of those New World holdings are in need of regeneration. 76 In some cases, recollection of adequate samples makes more sense than regeneration, particularly for highelevation landraces growing in areas unaffected by improvement programs (much of Oaxaca and Chiapas in Mexico, many Central American highlands, much of Andean Argentina, Bolivia [Plurinational State of], Chile, Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru). Collection of indigenous knowledge must be a priority for all recollecting. 77 Further collecting of wild species is needed, along with in situ conservation efforts. As with some landraces, recollecting of wild species is often more efficient than regeneration. 78 Safety duplication A network of safety duplicates for most accessions of major New World genebanks is in place. However, few of the accessions housed in the national collections of the Old World are backed up at the international centres; many are essentially unavailable to non-national (and sometimes even to national) users; and assurance of periodic regeneration is often uncertain. 79 Safety backup for about 85 percent of the genetic stock collections is in place at the USDA NCGRCP, Ft. Collins, Colorado, the United States of America. 80 Because the genetic diversity of teosinte and Tripsacum is relevant to maize research and breeding efforts for maize productivity, nutritional quality, bioenergy production, and other uses, ex situ backup of these materials is critical. 81 Documentation, characterization and evaluation Documentation of the materials held in national collections is inconsistent and sometimes poor, and is held in multiple databases that are not necessarily well maintained or easily accessible. Standardization across databases is lacking. The most pressing problem is to resolve the various acronyms and numbering systems used for the same accession. Only the US-GRIN system is internet accessible. 82 Implementation of a global information system for maize is anticipated and would serve especially to improve the regeneration progress. A separate database may be useful for teosinte. 83 315

APPENDIX 4 An operational comprehensive maize metadatabase would make more efficient safety duplication for all accessions possible. 84 Utilization Distribution of germplasm accessions is an indirect measure of the use of genetic resources for crop improvement. The CIMMYT maize collection is one of the world’s largest (second only to the Mexican national collection) and had its peak distribution year in 1989 followed by a net drop through 1995. However, there has been a net increase in distribution from 1996 through 2004 suggesting a renewed interest in germplasm utilization. 85 Increased use of germplasm may come about through improved technology for distribution of DNA itself. 86 Constraints noted for greater utilization include ownership issues and inadequate personnel. Distribution of accessions is hampered by IPR concerns. 87 There is a serious need to train a new generation of maize germplasm specialists in conservation and use. 88 Role of crop in sustainable production systems Strategic evaluation of maize germplasm accessions combined with genetic enhancement will be important to achieve increased food security and reduced poverty and to protect the environment, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Indigenous areas of the Americas. 89 A4.2.4 State of sorghum genetic resources Over the period 1996-2008, the yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) did not changed significantly (see Fig. A4.1). In 2008, sorghum was cultivated over a harvested area of 45 million hectares with a global production of 66 million tonnes. 90 Sorghum is mainly used for human consumption in Africa and India and for animal feed in China and the United States of America. The five highest producers of sorghum in 2007 were the United States of America (18 percent of global production), Nigeria (14 percent), India (12 percent), Mexico (10 percent), and the Sudan (6 percent). 316 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA The primary genepool consists of S. bicolor and its many races and several other species, the number of which depends on the taxonomic treatments. 91 Ex situ conservation status The major sorghum collections are at ICRISAT and at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Southern Regional Plant Introduction Station, followed by those at the Institute of Crop Germplasm Resources (ICGR) in China and at the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) in India. In addition, there are about 30 other institutions holding ex situ sorghum collections (primarily national collections). Altogether, over 235,000 accessions are maintained, of which 4,700 accessions are wild materials. 92 A high degree of duplication of accessions among collections is suspected, except for the Chinese collection which consists primarily of Chinese landraces. 93 Genetic erosion and vulnerability In Mali, 60 percent of local varieties of sorghum have disappeared in one region over the last 20 years due to the expansion of cotton production, introduction of maize cultivation, and the saturation of the available cropping area. In one village, diffusion of an improved variety displaced three local varieties of sorghum. 94 Several other African countries also indicated in their reports that improved varieties had displaced local varieties. 95 In Niger, however, no losses of varieties and landraces from farmers’ fields had been detected in collecting missions. 96 In Japan, sorghum is no longer cultivated at all, but the farmers’ varieties were collected for the national gene bank. 97 Gaps and priorities A massive number (28 000) of accessions urgently need regeneration, bottlenecks include quarantines and day length issues, labour costs and capacities. 98 Ecosampling of the wild progenitors and landraces of S. bicolor in each of its primary, secondary, and tertiary centres of diversity is needed. 99 Further collection and conservation of wild close relatives is needed. 100 Gaps in geographic coverage were noted

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    TABLE 1.4 (continued) Indicators of

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    24 CHAPTER 1 9 Hammer, K. 2003. A p

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    REHOVOT Department of Field and Veg

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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