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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF MAJOR AND MINOR CROPS for West Africa, Central America, Central Asia and the Caucasus, and Sudan in Darfur and the south. 101 Safety duplication The status of safety duplication varies greatly from collection to collection. Only nine of the collections are stored under long-term storage conditions (or close to it) and only eight are backed up under secure conditions. 102 ICRISAT has proposed to duplicate its entire sorghum collection of about 38 000 accessions for deposit at the SGSV and so far has sent 13 000 accessions. 103 Documentation, characterization and evaluation While passport data are available for most accessions, the nomenclature used varies greatly among institutions making it difficult to target duplicates. Characterization data are documented electronically at a reasonable level, but evaluation data are lacking. 104 Most data are not accessible through the internet. 105 Utilization Germplasm exchange and thus utilization is limited. Additional constraints on utilization are lack of useful trait information about accessions, decline in breeding programs, insufficient seed availability, and poor communication between breeders and conservers. 106 Core and mini-core collections based on sampling the available genetic diversity have been developed and used to identify trait-specific accessions resistant to biotic stresses. 107 The two primary collections have distributed most. The main recipients from the USDA have been public sector breeders, while from ICRISAT, recipients have been in-house research scientists (focus on crop improvement). 108 Role of crop in sustainable production systems As demand increases for more reliable food and feed sources from environments challenged by water shortage and high temperatures, sorghum will play a more prominent role due to its wide adaptation and diverse uses. 109 A4.2.5 State of cassava genetic resources From 1996 to 2008, the yield of cassava showed a net increase of 2.7 tonnes/ha (Figure A4.2). In 2008, cassava (Manihot esculenta) was grown over a harvested area of 19 million hectares with a global production of 233 million tonnes. 110 Cassava is essential to food security in most regions of Africa. In 2008, almost 51 percent of global production was from Africa and the five highest producers of cassava were Nigeria (19 percent of global production), Thailand (12 percent), Brazil (11 percent), Indonesia (9 percent), and the Democratic Republic of Congo (6 percent). The genepool consists of the cultivated M. esculenta and 70 to 100 wild Manihot species, depending on the taxonomic classification. Landraces, however, have been and will continue to be the primary sources of genes and gene combinations for new varieties. The wild species offer interesting traits (i.e. tolerance to post-harvest physiological deterioration, high protein content in the roots, resistance to pests and diseases), but are challenging to use and conserve. 111 The genus Manihot is native to the Americas, and most of the genetic diversification occurred there. Both Asia and Africa are important secondary centres of genetic diversity. 112 The primary genepool consists of the cultivars themselves and species known to cross readily with cassava and yield fertile offspring: M. flabellifolia and M. peruviana, native to South America. 113 Taxa crossing with difficulty with cassava but giving some positive results make up the secondary genepool, including M. glaziovii, M. dichotoma, M. pringlei, M. aesculifolia and M. pilosa. 114 In situ conservation status Despite long-standing proposals to create in situ reserves for wild Manihot species, this has not been realized. 115 317

APPENDIX 4 FIGURE A4.2 Global yields of root and tuber crops (tonnes per hectare) 17.0 15.0 13.0 11.0 Source: FAOSTAT 1996/2008 Ex situ conservation status The primary conservation strategy is field collections, in vitro collections are employed to a lesser extent, followed by cryopreservation. 116 Seed storage as a method for germplasm conservation has received limited attention, but shows promise as a means of preserving genes and especially for many wild species which are difficult to maintain by the alternative methods and are seed propagated in the wild. Cassava seeds are apparently orthodox in behavior and therefore can be stored under conventional conditions of low humidity and low temperatures. 117 CIAT has recently initiated a process to generate botanical seed through self-pollination of accessions in the cassava collection. The genotype of the accession is lost but its genes are preserved in the seeds produced. 118 Most cassava-growing countries have established a genebank of local landraces. Nearly all rely primarily on field-grown plants, but may have part of their collection under in vitro propagation as well. Two international centres, CIAT and IITA, maintain regional collections for the Americas and Asia (CIAT) and for 318 9.0 7.0 1996 1997 Cassava 1998 1999 2000 2001 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA 2002 Sweet potato Other roots & tubers 2003 2004 Africa (IITA). Overall, there are more than 32 000 accessions of cassava stored ex situ. Of these, 32 percent are estimated to be landraces. 119 According to a GCDT study, in order to represent the complete genetic diversity of the species, additional collecting should be carried out; priority countries for collecting the additional landraces are the Plurinational State of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Peru, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. 120 Gaps and priorities 2005 Potato 2006 2007 2008 Field collections are not in good shape and there are backlogs within in vitro collections due to funding shortages. High maintenance of conservation and relatively short regeneration intervals are key bottlenecks. 121 Wild Manihot species are poorly represented in ex situ collections, both by species (only about one-third of the species in the genus) and by populations. Funding is a constraint. Further collecting is needed, some species

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    The Second Report on THE STATE OF T

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    FIGURE 1.1 Global priority genetic

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    26 CHAPTER 1 X. & Li, Z. 2006. Gene

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    96 CHAPTER 4 very similar (approxim

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    CHAPTER 4 In the United States of A

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    CHAPTER 4 biosafety monitoring and

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    118 CHAPTER 4 16 Op cit. Endnote 8.

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    CHAPTER 5 In some countries includi

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    160 CHAPTER 6 12 Available at: www.

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    THE CONTRIBUTION OF PGRFA TO FOOD S

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    STATUS BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL LEGIS

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    MAJOR GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS BY CROP

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    WCMC World Conservation Monitoring

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