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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF MAJOR AND MINOR CROPS in distribution between genebanks, ranging from 23 to 7 630 accessions per year. 152 Unfortunately, recipients or users do not consistently return information from their evaluation of the requested germplasm to the providing genebank. 153 The most serious constraint to utilization of collections is lack of information about accessions, especially characterization and evaluation data. 154 Increased attention is needed to ensure the return and collation of such data for the benefit of the providing genebanks and ultimately for the benefit of all users. 155 The domestic public sector makes use of germplasm most frequently, but some genebanks provide large numbers of accessions to the private sector (breeding companies). In South America and Canada, farmers and NGOs intensively use the germplasm of the national genebanks. However, some genebanks distribute a substantial number of accessions to users abroad. NGOs and farmers use native cultivars and old varieties, often for crop production on-farm, and contribute to in situ conservation (regeneration, evaluation, and storage) of germplasm with this activity. 156 A technological tool to enhance germplasm utilization would be test kits for protection against viruses to be made widely available. 157 A4.2.7 State of sweet potato genetic resources Since 1996, the yield of sweet potato has been very erratic from year to year, with an overall decreasing trend (see Fig. A4.2). In 2008, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was cultivated over a harvested area of 8 million hectares with a global production of 110 million tonnes. 158 The highest producers of sweet potato in 2007 were China (77 percent of global production), Nigeria (3 percent), Uganda (2 percent), Indonesia (2 percent), and Viet Nam (1 percent). The genus includes 600 to 700 species of which sweet potato is the only one cultivated. More than 50 percent are in the Americas. Sweet potato and 13 wild Ipomoea species closely related to sweet potato belong to the section Batatas; all of these, except I. littoralis are endemic to the Americas. 159 Ex situ conservation status Globally, 35 500 accessions of sweet potato genetic resources are conserved, 80 percent of which are in less than 30 collections. 160 These accessions include landraces, improved material, and wild Ipomoea species. The global collection maintained in CIP, Peru, includes accessions from 57 countries, with Peru and other South American and Caribbean countries (primary centres of sweet potato diversity) as the most important contributors. 161 However, collection activities in the last 10 years produced only 1 041 accessions; most were improved material, followed by landraces. 162 Some 162 CWR species are conserved in five collections, as seed. Thirteen of these species are especially closely related and are the focus of conservation efforts. 163 Gaps and priorities Chapter 3 notes that for sweet potato, the important geographic as well as trait gaps in collections have already been identified. There are regeneration backlogs for most collections with 50 to 100 percent of accessions in some collections needing urgent regeneration. For collections holding wild accessions, 20 to 100 percent of the taxa need urgent seed regeneration. Many collections lack the capacity for in vitro regeneration or greenhouse conditions. 164 Most collections showed drawbacks and constraints in functions like plant health, documentation, regeneration, and safety duplication. 165 Documentation, characterization and evaluation Half of the collections have computerized databases and only a few are internet accessible. Standardization is needed. 166 Utilization Optimization of conservation protocols would enhance utilization. 167 321

APPENDIX 4 Role of crop in sustainable production systems Sweet potato is a tropical perennial, cultivated as an annual in temperate climates; grown in more than 100 countries. 168 A4.2.8 State of common bean genetic resources Since 1996, the yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been essentially flat (Figure A4.3). Dry beans were grown over a harvested area of 28 million hectares with a global production of 20 million tonnes in 2008 (excluding production from intercropped fields). 169 The six highest producers are India (19 percent of global production), Brazil (17 percent), Myanmar (12 percent), the United States of America and Mexico (6 percent), and China (5 percent). The common bean primary genepool consists of the cultivars and wild forms of P. vulgaris. The primary genepool has two distinct geographic components: the Andean zone and the MesoAmerican zone with domestication presumed to have occurred independently in each zone. The secondary FIGURE A4.3 Global yields of selected legume crops (tonnes per hectare) 322 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 1996 1997 Source: FAOSTAT 1996/2008 1998 1999 2000 2001 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA genepool consists of P. costaricensis, P. coccineus, and P. polyanthus, crosses of each with common bean result in hybrid progeny without any special rescue efforts, but the progeny can be partially sterile and difficult from which to retrieve stable common bean phenotypes. The tertiary genepool consists of P. acutifolius and P. parvifolius, crosses of either with common bean need embryo rescue to produce 170, 171 progeny. Ex situ conservation status CIAT in Colombia is the primary global collection with some 14 percent of the world’s approximately 262,000 genebank accessions of common bean. 172 Genetic erosion and vulnerability Genetic erosion is reported by several country reports for common bean and related taxa overall, 173 and, more specifically, cultivars have disappeared due to pathogen outbreaks, 174 eight years of recurring droughts, 175 and replacement by introduced varieties. 176 2002 2003 Pulses, less Phaseolus 2004 2005 2006 Groundnut 2007 Soybean Phaseolus 2008

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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