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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF MAJOR AND MINOR CROPS A4.2.9 State of soybean genetic resources Since 1996, the yield of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) has varied up and down from year to year, but with an overall increase (Figure A4.3). Soybean was grown in 2008 over a harvested area of 97 million hectares with global production of 231 million tonnes. 177 The five largest producers of soybean in 2008 were the United States of America (35 percent of global production), Brazil (26 percent), Argentina (20 percent), China (7 percent), and India (4 percent). The genus Glycine includes about 20 annual and perennial species distributed primarily in Australia and Asia. The primary genepool consists of the cultivated forms of G. max, the annual wild soybean, G. soja (considered the immediate ancestor of the cultivated soybean), and a weedy species G. gracilis, with its diversification centre in China, Korea, Japan, and the Far East region of the Russian Federation. The secondary genepool consists of the other wild species of Glycine, and the tertiary genepool is considered to be species in the legume tribe Phaseoleae. 178 Ex situ conservation status The ICGR-CAAS maintains the primary global collection with some 14 percent of the world’s approximately 230,000 genebank accessions of soybean. 179 Soybean is not one of the crops covered under the ITPGRFA. 180 Genetic erosion and vulnerability The genetic base of soybean production has been shown to be narrow for regions such as the southern United States of America 181 and Brazil. 182 In China, many traditionally grown local landraces can only be found in genebanks today. 183 Utilization In 2005, the need for information about the extent and distribution of diversity within the Chinese landraces was stressed in the context of an effort to estimate the genetic variation within and among four Chinese provinces for which accessions were available in the USNPGR. RAPD markers were used with ten landraces from each of the four geographically divergent provinces. It was suggested that these markers could be useful in generating a core collection, but the uneven representation of some provinces in the United States of America genebank would mean under-representation of some geographic areas in any core collection assembled in the United States of America. 184 The distribution of landraces in China itself and the substantial representation of them in the Chinese genebank presented an opportunity for assessment of population genetic structure in the primary genepool of soybean. An analysis for genetic diversity and genetic differentiation was carried out based on 59 SSR loci with 1 863 of the Chinese landraces. The goal was to derive information useful for effective management of the material in the genebank and to facilitate effective utilization of the landraces for soybean improvement. The SSR loci generated 1 160 alleles and identified seven clusters among the landraces. This high level of genetic diversity suggests the landraces will be important sources for soybean cultivar improvement. The rare alleles found were at loci that had high polymorphism and have potential for use in categorization of germplasm collections and as unique markers. Rareness in alleles at multiple loci in landraces of a given cluster suggests isolation of those from other landraces and further suggests they may harbour rare alleles for functional traits as well. 185 A core collection has been assembled in China and used as a foundation for marker-assisted soybean breeding. 186 A4.2.10 State of groundnut genetic resources Since 1996, the yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) has varied up and down from year to year, but with an overall increase (Figure A4.3). Groundnut was grown in 2008 over a harvested area of 25 million hectares with global production of 38 million tonnes. 187 The five largest producers of groundnut in 2008 were China (38 percent of global production), India (19 percent), Nigeria (10 percent), the United States of America (6 percent), 323

APPENDIX 4 and Myanmar (3 percent). Groundnut (also known as peanut) provides high quality edible oil (36 to 54 percent) and easily digestible protein (12 to 36 percent). It is an important crop, cultivated either as a grain legume or an oilseed in 113 countries. 188 Groundnut is an allotetraploid species (2n = 4x = 40) thought to have originated in the region of South America encompassing the southern regions of the Plurinational State of Bolivia and northwestern Argentina. 189 The genus Arachis comprises 80 species placed in nine sections. The section Arachis contains cultivated groundnut. Wild diploid Arachis species in South America are promising pest and disease resistance gene sources for groundnut breeding 190, 191 programmes. In situ conservation status Regeneration of groundnut wild relatives is problematic. Ideally conservation strategies for in situ conservation should be developed for wild taxa of groundnut. 192 Ex situ conservation status The largest groundnut collection is that at ICRISAT consisting of 15 419 accessions (12 percent of the world’s 128 461 accessions). Other organizations holding considerable numbers of accessions include the USDA- ARS in the United States of America, the NBPGR in India, INTA in Argentina and the ICGR-CAAS in China. 193 Genetic erosion and vulnerability With the introduction of improved varieties, urbanization and natural calamities, many landraces and wild species are being eroded in different countries. 194 More specifically, geographic- and habitat-focused collecting and conservation strategies are needed for the A and B-genome diploid wild Arachis species in South America, where many are at risk of extinction and are not well represented in existing collections. 195 Safety duplication ICRISAT has proposed to duplicate its groundnut collection for deposit at the SGSV and so far has sent 4 550 accessions. 196 324 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA Documentation, characterization and evaluation Passport, characterization, inventory and distribution databases are being maintained for the largest groundnut collection. 197 About 97 percent of the cultivated accessions have been characterized for 50 morpho-agronomic characteristics. 198 Utilization Both core (10 percent of the entire collection) and minicore (10 percent of core collection, 1 percent of entire collection) collections have been established at ICRISAT. The mini-core, comprising 184 accessions, serves as a gateway to the utilization of groundnut genetic resources in crop improvement programmes. Using the mini-core collection, trait-specific germplasm for resistance to drought, salinity and low temperature and for agronomic and seed quality traits has been identified. 199 Role of crop in sustainable production systems Over two-thirds of groundnut global production occurs in seasonally rainfed regions. Groundnut is suitable for different cropping patterns. Strategic evaluation of groundnut germplasm accessions combined with genetic enhancement will be important to increase food security, reduce poverty and protect the environment. 200 A4.2.11 State of major sugar crop genetic resources Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) are the two primary species used for sugar production. The global yield of sugarcane, accounting for about 70 percent of produced sugar, has varied greatly since 1996 with a period of low yields in 2000 through 2003, but ending with a net increase (Figure A4.4). Sugarcane was cultivated in 2008 over a harvested area of 24 million hectares with a total global production of 1 743 million tonnes. 201 The six largest producers of sugarcane in 2008 were Brazil (37 percent of global production), India (20 percent), China (7 percent), Thailand (4 percent), and Pakistan and Mexico (3 percent each).

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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