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plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

plant genetic resources for food and agriculture - FAO

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF

STATE OF DIVERSITY OF MAJOR AND MINOR CROPS The cytotaxonomy and species relationships generating what today is the sugarcane crop plant are complex. The crop is of hybrid origin, the taxonomic status of the genus is not settled, and there may have been multiple domestication events. 202 Therefore the genepool definitions are also complicated. One presentation is that there are four species in genus Saccharum: S. officinarum, the ‘type’ cane of the genus, not known in the wild; S. robustum, the wild ancestor of S. officinarum, S. spontaneum, a more primitive wild ancestor than S. robustum; and S. barberi, with an unclear origin, one possibility is that it is of hybrid origin. Two separate origins for the domesticates are postulated: India and Papua New Guinea. 203 These four species would comprise the primary genepool of sugarcane and cultivars today are predominantly of hybrid origin from crosses between S. officinarum and one of the other species. In general, hybrid seedlings are more resistant to diseases and more adaptable to climate variables than is S. officinarum. 204 A broader genepool is accessible, termed the Saccharum complex, and includes other genera now FIGURE A4.4 Global yields of sugar crops (tonnes per hectare) 73.0 68.0 63.0 58.0 53.0 48.0 43.0 38.0 33.0 1996 1997 Source: FAOSTAT 1996/2008 1998 1999 2000 Sugarcane 2001 thought to be involved in the origin of sugarcane: Erianthus, Ripidium, Sclerostachya, Narenga, and possibly Miscanthus. 205 The wild species of Saccharum and the related genera Erianthus and Miscanthus have played important roles in the production of improved varieties of sugar cane. Their role in sugar-cane improvement will increase as breeders look into the production of high energy canes. Sugarbeet production was not analyzed in the first SoW report, but the global yield of sugarbeet has also varied since 1995, with the perturbations coming in 2000 through 2003. There was a net increase in production by 2006 (Figure A4.4). Sugarbeet was cultivated in 2008 in a harvested area of 4.4 million hectares with a total global production of 227 million tonnes. 206 The five largest producers of sugarbeet in 2008 were France and the Russian Federation (each with 13 percent of global production), the United States of America (12 percent), Germany (10 percent), and Turkey (7 percent). The genetic base of the sugarbeet crop (open pollinated) is considered narrow. The immediate 2002 Sugarbeet 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 325

APPENDIX 4 progenitor is the wild sea beet, a conspecific subspecies to the crop. 207 The primary genepool is the species in section Beta of genus Beta, in which the crop is also classified; two other of the four sections of the genus comprise the secondary genepool (Corollinae and Nanae), and the fourth section Procumbentes comprises the tertiary genepool. 208 Ex situ conservation status The Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira collection of sugarcane germplasm in Brazil is the largest global collection with 12 percent of the world’s approximately 41 000 accessions; the Instituto Nacional de Investigación de la Caña de Azúcar in Cuba is second with 9 percent. 209 The USDA collection of sugarbeet germplasm in the United States of America is the largest global collection with 11 percent of the world’s approximately 22 500 accessions; the Genebank of the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research in Germany and Institute for Field and Vegetable Crops in Serbia are close seconds with 10 percent each. 210 Genetic erosion and vulnerability In Belgium there has been a reduction in sugarbeet varieties cultivated. 211 A4.2.12 State of banana/plantain genetic resources Since 1996, the yields of banana and plantain (species in genus Musa) have varied slightly, ending with net increases (Figure A4.5). Bananas and plantains were each grown in 2008 over harvested areas of 5 million hectares each, 10.2 million hectares in total, with a global production of 125 million tonnes (90 and 34 million tonnes, respectively). 212 The six largest producers of banana in 2008 were India (26 percent of global production), the Philippines (10 percent), China (9 percent), Brazil (8 percent), and Ecuador (7 percent). For plantain, the largest producers were Uganda (27 percent of global production), Colombia (10 percent), Ghana, Rwanda and Nigeria (8 percent each). 326 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S PGRFA The genus Musa represents a group of approximately 25 forest-dwelling species, divided into four sections, distributed between India and the Pacific, as far north as Nepal and extending to the northern tip of Australia. The genus belongs to the family Musaceae, which also comprises some seven species of Ensete and possibly a third, monospecific, genus Musella, which is closely related to Musa. Musa acuminata subsp. banksii is believed to be the ancestral parent of the majority of edible banana cultivars, contributing what is called the ‘A’ genome while Musa balbisiana contributed the ‘B’ genome to several banana cultivar groups and all plantains. The largest portion of the genepool is in the form of 12 cultivar types or genome groups. 213 A secondary region of diversity is in Africa where the crops were introduced some 3 000 years ago and radiated into more than 60 cooking types in the highlands of East Africa and 120 plantain types in West and Central Africa. 214 An additional group of edible bananas, known as Fe’I bananas, are confined to the Pacific. Their genetic origin is obscure, but taxonomic studies suggest ancestral links either with the wild species Musa maclayi or M. lododensis. 215 Ex situ conservation status About 13 000 accessions of Musa are reportedly conserved ex situ. Thirty-nine collections world-wide conserve more than 100 accessions each. Altogether they account for 77 percent of the total number of Musa accessions conserved ex situ. 216 Wild species offer potential for genetic diversity for such traits as resistance to abiotic stresses and tolerance to cold, water logging, and drought. 217 CWR currently account for 7 percent of the global collection. 218 The vast majority of the 60 or so Musa-dedicated national collections manage the majority of their accessions as full-sized plants in field collections. As part of a GCDT study, twenty-five field collections were surveyed and reported to hold slightly more than 6000 accessions in total. Of these institutions, 15 hosted in vitro collections containing slightly more than 2 000 accessions. In addition, the INIBAP Transit Center (ITC) holds an additional 1 176 accessions

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    Executive summary �his report des

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    documentation and characterization

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    98 CHAPTER 4 including rice, maize

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT PROVIDED INF

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    Annex 2 Regional distribution of co

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    EUROPE 214 ANNEX 2 ASIA AND THE PAC

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